Extractable iron and aluminium predict the P sorption capacity of Thai soils.

Soil Science

Society of America Journal 54, 1298-1304.

. Soil Science Society of America

Proceedings 35, 33-38.

Acknowledgments

Syers JK, Browman MG, Smillie GW, Corey RB (1973) Phosphate

sorption by soils evaluated by the Langmuir adsorption equation. In Thai soils, kaolin and sesquioxides are abundant constituents and are especially abundant

in upland soils in the north-east, lower north, and peninsular south,

covering about 47% of the total area of the country (Suddhiprakarn et

al. 2). Reactions of soil with applied P depend to a large extent on

mineralogy and texture (Uehara and Gillman 1981). 1987). Norrish and Taylor (1961) concluded that

DCB-extractable Fe and Al in Australian soils originated from Fe oxides,

which in their research was mostly goethite.

The P sorption data fitted to the Langmuir (plotted c v. Klong Chak (Kc) SGCL 3.2

11. Chumphon (Cp) Sawee district, Chumphon 10[degrees]15’59″

10. 1997).

Holford ICR, Wedderburn RWM, Mattingly GEG (1974) A Langmuir

two-surface equation as a model for phosphate adsorption by soils.

Journal of Soil Science 25, 242-255.

These soils are highly weathered, nutrient-depleted, and infertile so that P inputs are needed to sustain crop yields (Greenland 1981).

Phosphorus sorption by most tropical soils is usually attributed to

kaolin and oxides of iron and aluminium although Al-OM complexes can

play a major role in some acid soils (Singh and Gilkes 1992). 1. 1993; Agbenin 2003) but this association has not

been demonstrated for Thai soils.

Phosphate sorption coefficients in relation to soil properties

Uehara G, Gillman GP (1981) ‘The mineralogy, chemistry, and

physics of tropical soils with variable charge clays.’ (Westview

Press: Boulder, CO)

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

x = a[x.sub.m]c/(1 + ac)

There were no significant relationships between Langmuir Xm or

Freundlich b and either soil pH or OM (Table 2). Sadao (Sd) C 0.7

4. 7).

Particle size distribution in soils was determined by the pipette method (Kilmer and Alexander 1949; Day 1965). The energy of P sorption (Langmuir

coefficient a and Freundlich b) is not closely related to any soil

property. Klong Thom (Km) 99[degrees]17’28″ 2-3 Palm

3. The Freundlich k coefficient

for subsoils (median 288 [micro]g/g) is generally higher than for

surface soils (median 112 [micro]g/g). The lack of a close relationship

possibly reflects the diverse range of surfaces at which sorption occurs

and the diverse processes (energies) that are involved on these surfaces

and at different equilibrium solution P concentrations. (Ed. Yasothon (Yt) 103[degrees]0’43″ 2-3 Mixed deciduous

Shale/limestone

8. 1987; Singh and Gilkes

1991 ; Sanyal et al. Chumphon (Cp) 99[degrees]3’47″ 3-4 Coconut

10. Chiang Khong (Cg) Doi Saket district, 18[degrees]53’42″

Chiang Mai

Soil series Longitude Slope Land use

(%)

Sandstone

1. Chiang Khong (Cg) 99[degrees]13’15″ 2-3 Mixed deciduous

Soil series Textural Avail. Pak Chong (Pc) C 24.7

12. Soil Science Society of

America Journal 67, 589-595.

Borggaard OK (1983) The influence of iron oxides on phosphate

adsorption by soil. The highest values of

[Fe.sub.d] for Thai soils are for soils developed on basalt (range 26-74

g/kg, median 48 g/kg) followed by soils on shale/limestone (10-47 g/kg,

19 g/kg), sandstone (4-36 g/kg, 8 g/kg), and granite (4-16 g/kg, 7

g/kg).

Kilmer VJ, Alexander LT (1949) Method of making mechanical analysis

of soils. The Freundlich

k value is also closely related to SSA (r = 0.86). Extraction of soils with

DCB and oxalate is considered to be reasonably specific for crystalline

Fe ([Fe.sub.d]) and amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe ([Fe.sub.o]),

respectively, but these extractants may not be as specific for

corresponding Al compounds (McKeague et al. P sorption

capacity is very closely related to dithionite- and oxalate-extractable

Al and surface area; therefore, [Al.sub.d] or [Al.sub.o] could be used

as a routine soil test for predicting P sorption as a component of land

capability evaluation practice. In

‘Proceedings of a Scientific Workshop on Diffuse Pollution in

Subtropical and Tropical Developing Countries and Its Abatement’.

Bangkok, Thailand. FE Khasawneh) pp. Yasothon (Yt) LS 2.0

Shale/limestone

8. Thai Muang (Tim) 98[degrees]20’14″ 5-6 Para rubber

15. Soil Science 68, 15-24.

Anjos LH, Fernandes MR, Pereira MG, Franzmeir DP (1998) Landscape

and pedogenesis of an Oxisol-Inceptisol-Ultisol sequence in Southern

Brazil. Australian Journal of

Agricultural Research 18, 601-612. Surin (Su) Khonburi district, 14[degrees]29’34″

Nakhon Ratchasima

20. In

‘Methods of soil analysis. Phosphate sorbed was calculated from the

difference between P added and P in the equilibrium solution.

Laboratory analyses

Greenland DJ (1981) ‘Characterization of soils, in relation to

their classification of soils, in relation to their classification and

management for crop production: examples from some areas of the humid

tropics.’ (Clarendon Press: New York)

The Freundlich k coefficient, which is a measure of reactive

surface area (abundance of sorption sites) (Singh and Gilkes 1991;

Burkitt et al. CA Black) pp. The pH(KCl) values were lower (range 3.3

5.6, median 3.8) than those measured in water, indicating that the clay

minerals in the soils have a negative charge. Wiriyakitnateekul (A,B), A. Pathiu (Ptu) C 6.7

Granite

14. Although SSA provides

an excellent prediction of [x.sub.m] for Thai soils, the SSA procedure

is expensive and slow so it is preferable to predict P sorption maximum

from [Al.sub.d].

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Barrow NJ (1978) The description of phosphate adsorption curves.

Journal of Soil Science 29, 447-462.

Siradz SA (1985) Distribution, properties and phosphorus

requirements of soils of the Cobiac valley, Darling Range Western

Australia. Extractable

Al may be present in the structure of iron oxides, in kaolin, or other

clay minerals and Al-OM complexes. But as 73%

of the variation in P sorption maximum can be explained by Aid alone

incorporation of more variables (and costly laboratory analyses) is not

warranted.

Phosphorus sorption studies

Dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extractable Fe and Al

([Fe.sub.d] and [Al.sub.d]) were determined following the procedure of

Mehra and Jackson (1960). This is consistent with the findings of

Siradz (2000) for Indonesian red soils. Most of these

values were 0.1, which indicates that crystalline iron oxides are

dominant for these soils (Fitzpatrick and Schwertmann 1982). Physical and mineralogical

methods’. Pak Chong (Pc) Pak Chong, Nakhon 14[degrees]37’47″

Ratchasima

12. The relationship between [x.sub.m] and [Al.sub.o] was

slightly improved, with [R.sup.2] increasing from 0.62 to 0.64 when the

data of the Tha Mai soil series, which are outliers, were excluded.

Conversely, [R.sup.2] for the relationship of [x.sub.m] with [Fe.sub.o]

decreased from 0.57 to 0.43. 2002), ranged from 27 to 1364 [micro]g/g, with a median

of 220 [micro]g/g, thus resembling Western Australian soils (k, range

1-1681 [micro]g/g) (Singh and Gilkes 1991) and Indonesian red soils (k,

range 388-1569 [micro]g/g) (Siradz 2000). Soil

Science Society of America Proceedings 37, 358-363.

Norrish K, Taylor RM (1961) The isomorphous replacement of iron by

aluminium in soil goethite. This indicates that the iron oxides in

the soils developed on basalt have a high degree of crystallinity

compared with the other soils.

The Freundlich equation is as follows (Barrow 1978):

The Langmuir adsorption coefficient, a, ranged from 0.5 to 15.0

mL/[micro]g, with a median of 3.6 mL/[micro]g. Hang Chat (Hc) 99[degrees]17’55″ 3 Tamarind

Basalt

18. Krabi (Kbi) SCL 0.7

9. Ammonium oxalate extraction in the dark was

used to estimate non-crystalline and poorly crystalline Fe and Al

compounds ([Fe.sub.o] and [Al.sub.o]) (Rayment and Higginson 1992).

Langmuir [x.sub.m] and Freundlich k, which are both measures of

maximum P sorption capacity, were closely and positively related to

[Fe.sub.d], [Fe.sub.o], [Al.sub.d], [Al.sub.o], clay percentage, and SSA

(Table 2). 1987). Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 24, 420-421.

Barrow (1978) has shown that previously sorbed P should be taken

into account in P-fertilised soils when fitting equations to sorption

data for freshly added P. Stepwise correlation equations for predicting P sorption

maximum ([x.sub.m]) from some soil properties for Thai soils (n = 42)

Step Equation [R.sup.2]

1 109.19 + 0.86% [Al.sub.d] 0.73

2 45.33 + 0.58% [Al.sub.d] + 0.40% [Al.sub.o] 0.81

3 45.45 + 0.74% [Al.sub.d] + 0.38% 0.82

[Al.sub.o] -0.17% [Fe.sub.o]

4 40.35 + 0.63% [Al.sub.d] + 0.41% [Al.sub.o] 0.83

-0.20% [Fe.sub.o] + 0.13% [Fe.sub.d]

(B) Present address: Office of Science for Land Development, Land

Development Department, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Phosphorus sorption coefficients

Beauchemin S, Samard RR (2000) Phosphorus status of intensively

cropped soils of the St. J. Communications in Soil Science and

Plant Analysis 30, 1013-1024.

Pena F, Torrent J (1984) Relationships between phosphate sorption

and iron oxides in Alfisols from a river terrace sequence of

Mediterranean Spain. Part 1. The lowest

median value of [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] for Thai soils is for soils

developed on basalt (median [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.06), increasing in

the sequence sandstone ([Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.09) granite

([Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.10) shale/limestone

([Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.12). Field information for soils used in this publication

LS, Loamy sand; SL, sandy loam; SC, sandy clay; SCL, sandy clay loam;

SiL, silt loam; C, clay; CL, clay loam; VG, very gravelly, SG, slightly

gravelly; Co, coarse

Soil series Location Latitude

Sandstone

1. (ASA/SSSA: Madison, WI)

Results and discussion

Suddhiprakarn A, Kheoruenromne I, Sindhusen P, Yoothong K (1985)

Clay minerals and iron oxides of selected red and yellow soils in

north-east plateau and south coast, Thailand. Sawi (Sw) Khiri Ratthanikhom 9[degrees]1’15″

district, Suratthani

7. The values of [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] for the Thai

soils ranged from 0.01 to 0.28, with a median of 0.09. Australian Journal of

Soil Research 40, 497-513.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

Poudal DD, West LT (1999) Soil development and fertility

characteristics of a volcanic slope in Mindanao, the Philippines. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 35,

181-205.

Udo EJ, Uzu FO (1972) Characteristics of phosphate adsorption by

some Nigerian soils. Kohong (Kh) 100[degrees]25’18″ 2-5 Para rubber

2. The [Fe.sub.o] values for the Thai

soils were similar to those for Indonesian red soils (0.4-12.4 g/kg)

(Siradz 2000) and quite similar to values for Oxisols from southern

Brazil (median 2.5 g/kg) (Anjos et al. Applied Clay Science 11, 357-371. Soil pH was determined for

a 1:1 soil:solution ratio using both distilled water and 1 M KCl

(Natural Resources Conservation Service 1996) and organic carbon by

Walkley-Black titration (Walkley and Black 1934). Chalong (Chl) 99[degrees]18’47″ 2-3 Para rubber

16. The pH(water) values ranged from 3.9

to 6.3 with a median of 4.7. 1985; Yoshinaga et al. 6. Geoderma 27, 335 347. Beauchemin and Samard (2000)

considered that the greater P sorption capacity of subsoils is due to

their greater clay content. 8,

demonstrating the strength of these relationships and that there is no

systematic deviation of data for any parent material from the regression

lines. Ao Luk (Ak) 98[degrees]55’51″ 5 Fruit trees

13. P

class (mg/kg)

Sandstone

1. Average [x.sub.m] values follow the sequences

basalt [approximately equal to] shale/limestone granite

sandstone.

Mosugu ME, Chude VO, Esu IE, Parmwang TK, Malgwi WB (1999) Contents

and profile distribution of three forms of free iron oxides in three

Ultisols and an Alfisol in Nigeria. Pak Chong (Pc) 101[degrees]17’38″ 2-3 Custard apple

12. 1973; Holford et al. Site information, soil

classification, and interpreted parent materials are given in Table 1.

The soil samples were air-dried, crushed using a ceramic mortar and

pestle, and then passed through a 2-mm stainless steel sieve.

Sjarif S (1990) Some characteristics of Andosols from western

Indonesia. P sorption by soils developed on basalt conforms less well to

both Langmuir (linear regression coefficient r, range 0.88-0.99, median

0.99) and Freundlich (r, range 0.71-0.99, median 0.92) equations

compared with soils on other parent materials.

Borling K (2003) Phosphorus sorption, accumulation and leaching:

Effects of long-term inorganic fertilization of cultivated soils. More than 70% of the

soils were acidic, with pH 5.0. Sawi (Sw) 99[degrees]3’24″ 4-5 Para rubber

7. Sawi (Sw) SL 2.6

7. Phuket (Pk) 99[degrees]18’30″ 3-4 Para rubber

17. Chumphon (Cp) VGSL 1.0

10. doi: 10.1016/0016-7061 (82)90022-2

where x is amount of phosphate sorbed ([micro]g/g soil), c is P

concentration in the equilibrium solution ([micro]g/mL), k is an

empirical coefficient which is a measure of total sorption surface, and

b is an empirical coefficient related to the energy of sorption.

Dithionite- and oxalate-extractable iron and aluminium

References

Typical P sorption isotherms for the Thai soils, including those

with the highest and lowest P sorption capacities for each parent

material, are given in Fig. 122-132.

The objectives of this study were to determine the accuracy of

predictions of P sorption by Thai soils based upon values of dithionite-

and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al.

(A) Department of Soil Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok

10900, Thailand.

The amounts of DCB- and oxalate-extractable Al were similar, with

median values of 1.6 and 0.95 g/kg, respectively (Fig. doi:

10.1007/BF01073433

Yoshinaga N, Yoshiro K, Makoto N (1989) Mineralogy of red- and

yellow-colored soils from Thailand. Krabi (Kbi) 98[degrees]45’30″ 4-5 Para rubber

9. Soil Science

Society America Proceedings 38, 250-255.

Rayment GE, Higginson ER (1992) ‘Australian laboratory

handbook of soil and water chemical methods.’ (Inkata Press:

Melbourne, Vic.)

Singh B (1991) Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of soils

from south-western Australia. doi: 10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5

Concentrations of Fed in soils ranged from 4 to 74 g/kg, with a

median of 16.3g /kg. 263-310. Fang Danag (Fd) Tha Chang district, 9[degrees]12’49″

Suratthani

6. Soil Science 119, 167-177.

Loganathan P, Isiriman NO, Nwachuku DA (1987) Phosphorus sorption

by Ultisols and Inceptisols of Niger delta on southern Nigeria. Mae Taeng (Mt) Wang Thong district, 16[degrees]46’37″

Phitsanulok

22. Tha Mai (Ti) Tha Mai district, 12[degrees]38’36″

Chantaburi

19. There are

close positive relationships between P sorption and the abundance of

crystalline (dithionite) and amorphous (oxalate) iron oxides in many

soils from diverse environments (Ballard and Fiskell 1974; Borggaard

1983; Pena and Torrent 1984; Loganathan et al. The sites are nearly flat to

undulating, with slopes of 2-8% and are mostly used for agriculture.

These soils are classified as belonging to the kaolinitic mineralogical

classes of Ultisol, Oxisol, and Alfisol. (USDA: Washington, DC)

Oxalate-extractable Fe concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 13.8 g/kg,

with a median of 1.5 g/kg (Fig. However, other differences between surface

soils and subsoils include abundant organic matter in topsoils, which

can bind onto clay and sesquioxides and inhibit sorption of phosphate

(Sample et al. Soil Science 157, 36-45.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Soils

Manuscript received 21 February 2005, accepted 16 June 2005

Sanyal SK, De Datta SK, Chan PY (1993) Phosphate

sorption-desorption behavior of some acidic soils of South and Southeast

Asia. Lopez-Hernandez and Barnham (1974) reported

that there was no significant relationship between OM and P sorption in

some British and tropical soils, as did Udo and Uzu (1972) for some

well-drained Nigerian soils.

Fitter AH, Sutton CD (1975) The use of the Freundlich isotherm for

soil phosphate sorption data. Klong Thom (Km) SL 2.2

3. Soil Science 59, 39-45.

Sayin M, Mermut AR, Tiessen H (1990) Phosphate sorption-desorption

characteristics by magnetically separated soil fractions. Specific surface

area (SSA) was measured using the [N.sub.2]-BET method (Aylmore et al.

1970) with a Micrometrics Gemini III 2375 surface area analyser.

Pena F, Torrent J (1990) Predicting phosphate sorption in soils of

Mediterranean regions. Fertilizer Research 23, 173-179. The organic matter content

of the soils ranged from 0.9 to 26.5 g/kg, with a median of 6.4g/kg.

Values of OM ranged from 4.1 to 26.5 g/kg (median 11.2 g/kg) for surface

soils and 0.9 to 12.2g/kg (4.9 g/kg) for subsoils. After

shaking, the soil suspensions were centrifuged and the supernatant liquid was decanted and analysed for P by the molybdate blue method

(Murphy and Riley 1962). Chok Chai (Ci) 102[degrees]19’16″ 2-4 Cassava

21. 1974; Fitter and Sutton 1975).

Karim MI, Adams WA (1984) Relationships between sesquioxides,

kaolinite, and phosphate sorption in a catena of Oxisols in Malawi. The close relationship between P sorption

and SSA for Thai soils was also observed for southern Nigerian soils

(Loganathan et al. 545-566. Particle size analysis

confirmed the field observations of texture; the soils developed on

sandstone and granite generally contained much sand, whereas those on

shale/limestone and basalt mostly had 50% clay. Field soil texture for the Thai soils ranged from sandy loam to clay.

Some soils contained a few particles 2 mm. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62, 1651-1658.

Forty-five soil samples from 22 profiles were taken from surface

and subsurface horizons of soils on sandstone, shale/limestone, granite,

and basalt, which are representative of many of the soils used for

agriculture in Thailand (Vijarnsorn 2000). Soil Science Society of America

Proceedings 33, 438-444.

Siradz SA (2000) Mineralogy and chemistry of red soils of

Indonesia. Journal of Soil Science 12, 294-306.

Lopez-Hernandez ID, Barnham CP (1974) The covariance of phosphate

sorption and other soil properties in some British and tropical soils.

Journal of Soil Science 25, 196-206.

Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1991) Phosphorus sorption in relation to soil

properties for the major soil types of south-western Australia.

Australian Journal of Soil Research 29, 603-518. Signifcant relationships of P sorption capacity values with

dithionite- and oxalateextractable Fe and Al have been reported by many

authors (Syers et al. Journal of Soil Science 26, 241-246.

Bromfield SM (1965) Studies on the relative importance of iron and

aluminum in the sorption of phosphate by some Australian soils.

Australian Journal of Soil Research 3, 31-44. Fang Danag (Fd) SC 2.0

6. (Ed. (American Society of

Agronomy: Madison, WI)

Holmgren GGS (1967) A rapid citrate-dithionite extractable iron

procedure. Some of the surface soils developed on

shale/limestone (Pc, Ak, and Ptu) and basalt (Ci) were only slightly

acid with pH(water) 6.0-6.5. Soil Science 112, 267-275.

The ratio of [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] has been taken as an indicator

of the maturity or crystallinity of free iron oxides in soils (Blume and

Schwertmann 1969). Hang Chat (Hc) SL 15.1

Basalt

18. Maataloustietullinen Aikakaukirza 35,

165-177.

W. The Freundlich b coefficient, which is an

indicator of the energy of adsorption, ranged from 0.21 to 0.66, with a

median of 0.39. Sandy soils tended to sorb

less P so that P sorption maximum values for soils developed on

sandstone (132 [micro]g/g) and granite (313 [micro]g/g) were generally

less than for shale/limestone and basalt (579 [micro]g/g). Journal of Soil Science 43, 645-567.

(D) Corresponding author. However, in this study it appears that both [Al.sub.d] and

[Al.sub.o] are superior indicators for P sorption for these soils, in

accordance with many previous studies (Bromfield 1965; Sayin et al.

1990; Singh and Gilkes 1991; Agbenin and Tiessen 1994; Siradz 2000;

Agbenin 2003). Chalong (Chl) C 5.5

16. Kohong (Kh) LS 3.2

2. 5. Soil Science 124, 370-376.

Burkitt LL, Moody PW, Gourley CJP, Hannah MC (2002) A simple

phosphorus buffering index for Australian soils. Kasetsart Journal of

Natural Science 19, 265-271.

Conclusions

Materials and methods

Barrow NJ, Shaw TC (1975) The slow reactions between soil and

anion. Tasae (Te) SL 2.6

5. Lawrance lowlands. Phuket (Pk) Ban Na San district, 8[degrees]42’12″

Suratthani

17. We have not followed this procedure in the

present research because we wanted to use the same procedures as in the

previous studies (where this modification was not made) with which we

are comparing our results.

We gratefully acknowledge the support of this work by the Royal

Golden Jubilee PhD program under the Thailand Research Fund for

financial support. Chiang Khong (Cg) CL-C 1.7

Table 2. These values are similar to those for Ultisols from

Nigeria (5 80g/kg) (Mosugu et al. Analytica Chimica Acta 27,

31-36. doi: 10.1016/00167061

(84)90030-2

Accurately weighed amounts of about 1.0 g of air-dried soil samples

(2 mm fraction) in 20 mL 0.01 M Ca[Cl.sub.2] containing K[H.sub.2]

P[O.sub.4] at various concentrations were shaken on an end-over-end

shaker at 25 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C for 17 h, and a few drops of toluene were added to suppress microbial action (Ozanne and Shaw 1967). Soil Science 37, 29-38.

Fitzpatrick RW, Schwertmann U (1982) Al-substitution goethite–an

indicator of pedogenic and other weathering environments in South

Africa. Tasae (Te) 100[degrees]30’55″ 4-5 Para rubber

5. Tha Mai (Ti) 102[degrees]2’42″ 5-8 Para rubber

19. Hang Chat (Hc) Hang Chat district, 18[degrees]19’25″

Lampang

Basalt

18. Chok Chai (Ci) Khonburi district, 14[degrees]31’58″

Nakhon Ratchasima

21. The highest values of DCB- and

oxalate-Al were for soils developed on basalt (median [Al.sub.d] 3.5 and

[Al.sub.o] 1.3 g/kg), followed by those on shale/limestone (median

[Al.sub.d] 2.3 and [Al.sub.o] 1.1 g/kg), granite (median [Al.sub.d] 1.4

and [Al.sub.o] 0.8 g/kg), and sandstone (median [Al.sub.d] 0.7 and

[Al.sub.o] 0.4 g/kg). Available P was

determined by the Bray II method (Bray and Kurtz 1945). 2. These values are similar to those for Ultisols and Inceptisols of the Niger delta in southern Nigeria (337 [micro]g/g) (Loganathan et

al. pp. 1971).

Agbenin JO, Tiessen H (1994) The effects of soil properties on the

differential phosphate sorption by semi-arid soils from Northeast

Brazil. MSc thesis, University of Western Australia.

Agbenin JO (2003) Extractable iron and aluminum effects on

phosphate sorption in a savanna Alfisols. Holmgren (1967) reported that DCB-extractable Al

is thought to be the Al that is substituted for [Fe.sup.3+] in

crystalline Fe oxides. logx) equations are shown in Fig. Tha Mai (Ti) C 82.0

19. Fang Danag (Fd) 99[degrees]8’12″ 5-8 Para rubber

6. 1971; Udo and Uzu 1972; Juo and Fox 1977; Jones

1981; Karim and Adams 1984; Loganathan et al. The SSA of these

soils ranged from 2 to 78 [m.sup.2]/g, with a median of 23 [m.sup.2]/g.

About 80% of the samples had SSA 40 [m.sup.2]/g (Fig. PhD thesis, University of Western

Australia.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Juo AS R, Fox RL (1977) Phosphorus sorption characteristics of some

bench-mark soils of West Africa. The

highest values of SSA were for soils developed on basalt (range 28 78

[m.sup.2]/g, median 41 [m.sup.2]/g), followed by those on

shale/limestone (7-61 [m.sup.2]/g, 32 [m.sup.2]/g), granite (5-24

[m.sup.2]/g, 14 [m.sup.2]/g), and sandstone (2-30 [m.sup.2]/g, 8

[m.sup.2]/g).

The frequency distributions of DCB- and oxalate-soluble Fe and Al

values for 45 soil samples are given in Fig. Klong Chak (Kc) 102[degrees]29’12″ 5-8 Para rubber

11. Pathiu (Ptu) Pathiu district, 10[degrees]43’38″

Suratthani

Granite

14. Effect of time and temperature on the decrease in phosphate

concentration in the soil solution. Gilkes (C)

Blume HP, Schwertmann U (1969) Genetic evaluation of profile

distribution of Al, Fe and Mn oxides. Tasae (Te) Hadyai district, Songkla 7[degrees]6’12″

5. Sadao (Sd) 99[degrees]26’50″ 4-5 Forest plantation

4. Chalong (Chl) Ban Na San district, 8[degrees]47’18″

Suratthani

16. The regression

coefficient (r) for the Langmuir equation (range 0.88-0.99, median 0.99)

was mostly larger than for the Freundlich equation (0.71-0.99, median

0.96). The soils developed on basalt and

shale/limestone exhibit greater P sorption than those on granite and

sandstone.

Sorption of phosphate by Thai soils ranges from moderate ([x.sub.m]

= 35 [micro]g/g) to high (1111 [micro]g/g). Mae Taeng (Mt) 100[degrees]25’16″ 2-3 Mango

22. doi: 10.1071/SR9910603

Values of Langmuir P sorption maximum ([x.sub.m]) for the Thai

soils ranged from 35 to 1111 [micro]g/g, with a median of 370 [micro]g/g

(Fig. Soil Science Society of

America Journal 64, 659-670.

Natural Resources Conservation Service (1996) ‘Soil survey

laboratory methods manual.’ Soil Survey Investigation Report No.

42, version 3.0. Yasothon (Yt) Kumuang district, Buriram 15[degrees]14’33″

Shale/limestone

8. Matrix of correlation coefficients (r) for linear

relationships between P sorption parameters and some soil

properties for Thai soils

Number of samples = 44

Langmuir

[x.sub.m] a (mL/

Parameters ([micro]g/g) [micro]g)

[Fe.sub.d] 0.69 *** 0.38 *

[Fe.sub.o] 0.65 *** 0.47 **

[Al.sub.d] 0.88 *** 0.47 **

[Al.sub.o] 0.80 *** 0.38 *

Clay 0.69 *** 0.32 *

SSA 0.88 *** 0.46 **

pH(1 : 1 [H.sub.2]O) 0.27 0.08

pH(1 : 1 KCl) 0.27 0.05

OM 0.06 -0.14

Freundlich

Parameters k ([micro]g/g) b

[Fe.sub.d] 0.64 *** -0.40 *

[Fe.sub.o] 0.85 *** -0.14

[Al.sub.d] 0.89 *** -0.18

[Al.sub.o] 0.86 *** -0.00

Clay 0.60 *** -0.29

SSA 0.86 *** -0.30 *

pH(1 : 1 [H.sub.2]O) 0.21 -0.25

pH(1 : 1 KCl) 0.23 -0.22

OM -0.04 0.07

* P 0.05; ** P 0.01; *** P 0.001.

Table 3. Surin (Su) VGC 3.6

20. 4. 1989; Yoothong et al. PhD thesis, University of Western Australia.

Ballard R, Fiskell JGA (1974) Phosphorus concentration in coastal

plain forest soils. Thai Muang (Tim) Takua Tung district, 8[degrees]16’20″

Phangnga

15. They are also similar to values for Alfisols in the northern

Guinea savanna in Nigeria (range 103-460 [micro]g/g) (Agbenin 2003) but

are much lower than values for some other tropical soils, including

Andosols in Indonesia (4510 [micro]g/g) (Sjarif 1990), Oxisols developed

on volcanic ash in the Philippines (6944-14208 [micro]g/g) (Poudal and

West 1999), and Indonesian red soils (719-2747 [micro]g/g) (Siradz

2000). Geoderma 33, 283-296. The relatively high concentration of [Al.sub.d]

for the soils on basalt where most [Fe.sub.d] occurs may indicate that

Al substitution in iron oxides may be more abundant in these soils than

in the other soils. Much [Al.sub.d] is present in iron oxides

(Holmgren 1967) and the DCB reagent may extract Al substituting for Fe

in goethite and hematite, in addition to the amorphous and poorly

crystalline forms of Al dissolved by the other extractants (Singh and

Gilkes 1991). doi: 10.1071/SR9650031

Vijarnsorn P (2000) Land use conversions in Thailand. Klong Thom (Km) Pathiu district, Chumphon 10[degrees]45’40″

3. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations

are often used (Olsen and Watanabe 1957; Kaila 1963; Bache and Williams

1971; Pena and Torrent 1990) to fit P sorption data but may provide good

fits for only a limited range of P concentrations in solution (Syers et

al. Thai Muang (Tim) Co-SCL 211.0

15. Ao Luk (Ak) C 0.8

13. The much closer

relationships between the maximum P sorption coefficients ([x.sub.m] and

k) are due to all possible surfaces having sorbed P to reach their

maximum P capacity regardless of the energy of sorption involved.

Kaila A (1963) Dependence of the phosphate sorption capacity on the

aluminium and iron oxide in soils. doi: 10.1071/AR9670601

Yoothong K, Moncharoen L, Vijarnsorn P, Eswaran H (1997) Clay

mineralogy of Thai soils. Bivarate plots for [x.sub.m] are shown in Fig. 2). Klong Chak (Kc) Muang districe, Trad 12[degrees]17’14″

11. Values of [x.sub.m] for subsoils (range 84-1111 [micro]g/g,

median 400 [micro]g/g) were higher than for surface soils (35-909

[micro]g/g, median 256 [micro]g/g) as shown in Fig. PhD

thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

x = k[c.sup.b]

Aylmore LAG, Sills ID, Quirk JP (1970) Surface area of homoionic

illite and montmorillonite clay minerals as measured by the sorption of

nitrogen and carbon dioxide. In ‘The role of phosphorus in

agriculture’. Freundlich k values for the Thai

soils were in the sequence basalt (range 218-1364 [micro]g/g, median 505

[micro]g/g) shale/limestone (72-742 [micro]g/g, 404 [micro]g/g)

granite (68-379 [micro]g/g, 168 [micro]g/g) sandstone (27-288

[micro]g/g, 100 [micro]g/g). Also thanks to Michael Smirk, University of Western

Australia, for assisting with the analyses.

McKeague JA, Brydon JE, Miles NM (1971) Differentiation of forms of

extractable iron and aluminium in soils. 1). Ao Luk (Ak) Ban Ta khun district, 8[degrees]56’57″

Suratthani

13. Surin (Su) 102[degrees]18’41″ 2-3 Cassava

20. 3), with no systematic

departure of data from the regression lines for any parent material.

Soil characteristics

Sample EC, Soper RL Racz GJ (1980) Reactions of phosphate

fertilizers in soils. Krabi (Kbi) Ao Luk district, Krabi 8[degrees]24″59″

9. Similarly for soils

from Nigeria, soil pH had no significant relationship with P sorption

(Loganathan et al. Email: agrals@ku.ac.th

Mehra OP, Jackson ML (1960) Iron oxide removal from soils and clays

by a dithionate-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. This may be due to liming, which is used

for agriculture in these areas. The highest concentrations of

amorphous Fe for Thai soils were for soils developed on basalt (range

1.5-13.8 g/kg, median 3.4 g/kg), followed by shale/limestone (0.9-6.9

g/kg, 2.2 g/kg), sandstone (0.2-1.4 g/kg, 0.7 g/kg), and granite

(0.3-2.5 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg).

Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of the Degtjareff method

for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the

chromic acid titration method. The

initial concentration needed ranged from 2 to 30[micro]g P/mL in order

to achieve final equilibrium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0

[micro]g P/mL in solution for each soil (5 points per soil). Suddhiprakarn (A,D), I.

Kheuruenromne (A), and R. 1998) and soils from Spain

(0.2-3.7 g/kg) (Pena and Torrent 1990). 1987) and for Ultisols and Alfisols formed from

acidic and basic rocks in West Africa (Juo and Fox 1977). Chok Chai (Ci) C 2.1

21. Various

mathematical models have been proposed for describing the relationship

between the amount of P sorbed per unit of soil and the coexisting

concentration of P in solution. Pathiu (Ptu) 99[degrees]15’26″ 2-3 Durian

Granite

14. The same trend

was observed for soils from the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria (103

[micro]g/g in surface soil and 460 [micro]g/g in subsoil) (Agbenin 2003)

and also for Swedish soils (Borling 2003). Soil

Science Society of America Journal 48, 406-409.

Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for the

determination of phosphate in natural waters. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57, 937-945.

Day DR (1965) Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. The Langmuir coefficient,

a, is related (inversely) to the energy of P adsorption and values are

in the sequence: basalt (range 1.3-15.0 mL/[micro]g, median 5.1

mL/[micro]g) shale/ limestone (0.7-14.0 mL/[micro]g, median 4.5

mL/[micro]g) sandstone (0.5-7.3mL/[micro]g, median 3.4mL/[micro]g)

granite (0.5-13.5 mL/[micro]g, median 2.6 mL/[micro]g) (Fig. It is evident that the P sorption characteristics of Thai

soils closely resemble those of similar soils from other tropical

countries.

(C) School of Earth and Geographical Science, Faculty of Natural

and Agricultural Science, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA

6009, Australia.

The frequency distributions for soil properties are given in Fig.

1.

Table 1. 1999) and Indonesian red soils

(24-82g/kg) (Siradz 2000) but higher than for Western Australian soils

(median [Fe.sub.d] 6.2g/kg) (Singh 1991). 2. This is the reverse of the trend for Australian soils whose P

sorption data were described better by the Freundlich equation (Barrow

and Shaw 1975; Siradz 1985; Singh and Gilkes 1991 ; Burkitt et al.

2002). Journal of Soil Science 34, 333-341.

There were no highly significant relationships between soil

properties and Langmuir a or Freundlich b coefficients, which are

measures of P sorption energy. 1987; Pena and Torrent

1990; Singh and Gilkes 1991; Agbenin and Tiessen 1994; Siradz 2000;

Agbenin 2003; Boding 2003). PhD thesis, University of Western Australia.

The Langmuir equation has the form (Barrow 1978):

DCB- and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al were positively and quite

closely related to SSA for these soils (Fig. Relationship to soil properties. Values of Freundlich b were in the sequence granite

sandstone shale/limestone basalt, although there was

considerable overlap between values for soils on the 4 parent materials

(Fig. Clays

and Clay Minerals 7, 317-327.

Bache BW, Williams EG (1971) A phosphate sorption index for soils.

Journal of Soil Science 22, 289-301.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Ozanne PG, Shaw TC (1967) Phosphate sorption by soils as a measure

of the phosphate requirement for pasture growth. Soil

Science 144, 330-338.

Syers JK, Evans TD,Williams DH, Muradocks JT (1971) Phosphate

sorption parameters of representative soils from RioGrande Do Sul,

Brazil. Sadao (Sd) Bang Sa Phan Noi district, 11[degrees]0’10″

Prachuap Kirikhan

4. c/x) and

Freundlich (logc v. Mae Taeng (Mt) C 11.5

22. Clays and Clay Minerals 18, 91-96.

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1992) Properties of soil kaolins from

south-western Australia. Phuket (Pk) SiL 1.8

17. 6). 6).

Land suitable for agriculture comprises about 52% of the total area

of Thailand and most soils are phosphate (P) deficient (Vijarnsorn

2000). Kohong (Kh) Hadyai district, Songkla 6[degrees]45’18″

2. Soil

Science Society of America Proceedings 21,144-149.

Bray RA, Kurtz LT (1945) Determination of total organic and

available phosphorus in soil. It is an important process affecting the availability

of phosphate to plants and the effectiveness of P fertiliser. doi:

10.1016/S0169-1317(96)00033-6

Introduction

The term ‘phosphate sorption’ is used here to describe

any process in which P ions in solution react with atoms on the surface

of soil particles. Soil

Science Society of America Journal 63, 1258-1273.

Jones RC (1981) X-ray diffraction line profile analysis vs

phosphorus sorption by 11 Puerto Rican soils. 1980). Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 36,

879-883.

Olsen SR, Watanabe FS (1957) A method to determine a phosphorus

adsorption maximum of soils as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Soil Science Society of

America Journal 45, 828-825.

where x is the amount of phosphate sorbed per unit of soil

([micro]g/g soil), c is the phosphate concentration in equilibrium

solution ([micro]g/mL), a is a coefficient which is related to bonding

energy (mL/[micro]g), and [x.sub.m] is the sorption maximum ([micro]g/g

soil).

Stepwise regression analysis was used to obtain the most predictive

equation for maximum P sorption capacity as shown in Table 3

Spurs bets go East; RESULT!

l g -The

agent for Emmanuel Adebayor (right) has already requested 10 per cent of

the deal. l y e Football clubs are always looking at ways to gain a

slice of the massive Asian market, if only to access pirate DVDs. What are the

odds on that? Spurs have announced Fun88 as the club’s official

Asian betting and gaming partner in a lucrative twoyear deal. All rights reserved.

iabat Spurs and Fun88 hope inside the two-year agreement to launch

a new bespoke betting microsite and that’s not a bad idea – in two

years people might just know what it means.

COPYRIGHT 2012 MGN LTD

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

AT a time when most Premier League teams are signing players,

Tottenham have signed two deals with betting companies. But most British men have done the same thing.

k The Londoners have also just signed a deal making Betfred their

official UK partner.

Byline: DEREK McGOVERN ; JOHN SHAW

Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. s e I

told a mate the other day that I once went to a casino in central Asia.

“Tibet?” he asked. “Why else?” I answered.

.

It does sound a bit like cheating, having one UK partner and one

Asian partner

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The ‘Electronic Herd’ Rides Again

And then to worry for hours or days or weeks if the equities market, as we’ve been lectured over and over again for the last two decades, is really the place to be for the long run.

As New York Times columnist and author Thomas Friedman keeps reminding us, the global market and the electronic herd shows no mercy.

In 1987, it was Black Monday and eventually the bursting of Japan’s enormous asset bubble. recession.

“Highly speculative” is what the seasoned analysts call the Shanghai stock market — it’s a reasonable description given that local Chinese call it Shanghai’s “slot machine.”

In fact, it is the sort of action the investment world has been urging China to undertake.

It would all be a curious anomaly if the world’s equity and bond markets were not so interconnected these days — by the Internet, by global institutions awash in cash, by international investors the world over chasing higher and higher returns.

It is also what the experts might call a “frothy market,” or more ominously, “a bubble.” So, for many it was no surprise when Shanghai suddenly sold off by 9 percent in one day, its biggest plunge in a decade.

A slot that has paid off handsomely over the last year, doubling almost every bet.

Not true, the Chinese government announced in a very transparent effort at crisis management. And, almost immediately, the slots were paying off again — the market went up today more than 4 percent.

Any perception of weakness, any bureaucratic misstep by governments, any misguided attempt by financial markets to change rules to benefit their societies can lead to a harsh and brutal market reaction.

The sell-off was prompted by rumors that the Chinese government was set to impose new rules on its wild equities market, to try to rein in the speculative excess.

Suddenly, one market plunges and the fear and nervousness become tangible, palpable, global. The individual investor is left looking (or fearing to look) at his or her 401(k) to see how bad the damage is.

The analysts now say that Shanghai was just “the excuse everyone was looking for to take some chips off the table.”

Was there any logical reason to believe that an effort by the Chinese government to impose some rational behavior on its unruly markets would somehow fundamentally damage the Chinese economy, the world’s fastest-growing economy with tentacles reaching every corner of the planet? No.

Today, there is uncertainty and insecurity the world over — markets are at record highs; real estate values are plunging in some markets; there are wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and warnings of a U.S. In 1997, it was the attack on SE Asian currencies and the start of the Asian contagion that affected markets around the globe.

Nothing personal. A sell-off in Shanghai may have no real economic effect on any of us, but we can all vicariously feel the fright of a scary plunge.

The economic reality that we must all live with in today’s high-speed, hi-tech, interconnected global marketplace is that nervousness, fear and panic also know no boundaries.

Usually it’s the big institutions and hedge funds that trim their bets before the next markets in the next time zones even open for business. It’s just globalization.

I’ve been whipsawed through a few of these global equity panics during my years in Asia.

Singapore police raid Senegalese ‘casino consulate’ on gambling tip.

All rights reserved.

A total of 31 people — 14 Singaporeans and 17 foreigners — were

arrested in the raid at the consulate on the fifth floor of a building

in the eastern part of Singapore, police said.

Singapore, which recently lifted a longtime ban on casinos, now

only legally allows gambling such as lotteries, bets on football

matches and horseracing.

Singapore’s Foreign Minister George Yeo was quoted as saying

the incident should not affect diplomatic ties between the two

countries.

SINGAPORE, Nov.

Copyright 2006 Gale, Cengage Learning. 5 Kyodo

The Sunday Times said that up to 100 punters regularly congregated

at the site.

Local newspapers reported more than S$1 million (US$640,000) was

changing hands each night and that the consulate even had a VIP room

for high-rollers willing to bet at least S$100,000

According to the Singapore Foreign Ministry, honorary consuls do

not enjoy diplomatic immunity and privileges, and it is up to the

police to decide on the action to take against Kusni.

Singapore police raided Senegal’s consulate late Friday after

getting a tip-off the consulate was being used for illegal gambling, a

police spokesman said Sunday.

Singapore police are still looking for Senegal’s honorary

consul, Indonesian businessman Benny Kusni, who has gone missing.

Of them, 23 were charged in the Subordinate Court with operating

an illegal gambling den.

COPYRIGHT 2006 Kyodo News International, Inc.

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Singapore and Senegal established diplomatic ties in 1999.