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Hacking by China not necessarily a “hostile act” – CNN Security Clearance

this week and asked Dempsey if there was anything he wanted to pass on to Xi Jinping.. Martin Dempsey, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said he “believe(s) someone in China is hacking into our systems and stealing technology and intellectual property which at this point is a crime.”

By Adam Levine

But Dempsey told the Senate Armed Services Committee where he was testifying that he cannot attribute the Chinese hacking to China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army.

“Happy Valentine’s Day,” Dempsey replied.

Asked by Republican Senator Lindsey Graham from South Carolina if it could be proven that the PLA was behind a hacking of the defense infrastructure, would it be considered a “hostile act,” Dempsey said it wasn’t necessarily.

Graham noted he was about to lunch with the Vice President of China who is in the U.S. infrastructure, it would not necessarily be a “hostile act.”

Gen. top military officer said should China’s military be found to be behind hacks into the U.S.

“I would consider it a crime,” Dempsey said. Asked what he would consider a hostile act, Dempsey said “attacking our critical infrastructure” would be a act worthy of a similar response.

The U.S

Zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia.

Rock and mineral collecting in Canada. Greenough et al.

(1989) showed that basalt at Five Islands, Partridge Island, and Gape

d’Or conformably overlying the Blomidon Formation is

strarigraphically equivalent to the lower lava unit on North Mountain.

They suggested that at McKay Head (not sampled in this study), a thick

flow equivalent to the upper lava unit on North Mountain is overlain by

several thinner flows and then by the McCoy Brook Formation. b.d. 61, pp. 2a, 2c, 2e;

Fig. The dominant zeolite minerals in Kings

County are “heulandite” and stilbite.

In general, Ca ions can crystallize out of aqueous solution at much

higher temperatures than Na and K (Kotz and Purcell 1987, p. In the basalt, zeolites are common in some thinner joints

with neptunian dykes (Fig. = below detection limit

E = chemical balance error, [(Al+ [Fe.sup.3+])-[Al.sub.theor]]x100/

[Al.sub.theor] (after Passaglia 1975)

Table 2

Electron microprobe analyses of representative zeolite minerals from

Kings County

Mineral Mesolite Scolecite

Sample Z23 Z23

Analysis No. Canadian

Journal of Earth Sciences, v. b.d.

Si/Al 2.61 2.62 3.00 3.11 3.05

E% -2.0 -2.3 6.5 -1.8 1.0

Mineral “Heulandite” Epistilbite Barrerite

Sample 153 W166 W176 W168

Analysis No. Jurassic basalts of the northern Bay of Fundy

region, Nova Scotia. 0.50

MgO b.d. 26, pp. New insights into the classification and

formation of zeolites hosted by the North Mountain Basalt, Annapolis

Valley, southern Nova Scotia. The term

“acadialite” has been applied by previous workers to the pink

variety of chabazite. Fe, Mg, and K were

not detected.

Five Islands

Thirty polished thin sections of representative specimens from the

North Shore of the Minas Basin were prepared for detailed study by

electron microprobe. b.d. b.d.



Total 91.01 91.81 90.31 90.02 90.58

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 80 72 72 72

Si 24.2 29.55 29.28 29.15

Al 16 6.49 6.73 6.87

Fe b.d.

Mg b.d.

Ca 1.43 3.03 3.18 3.21

Na 12.36 0.16 0.19 0.17

K b.d. Scolecite has been identified only by XRD and some

massive samples described as scolecite on the basis of hand specimen

character were identified as mesolite by XRD and electron microprobe.


Zeolite identification is based on hand-specimen identification,

electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.

Two-hundred samples from the North Shore of the Minas Basin and seventy

samples from Kings County have been studied.


Chabazite and stilbite are abundant among our studied samples;

“heulandite”, barrerite, epistilbite, and natrolite are rare.

We have not identified thomsonite, reported by Booth (1994). Where faulting and

sedimentation was synchronous with zeolite formation, as at Wasson

Bluff, geological field evidence can be used to determine the sequence

of formation of secondary minerals.

APPLEMAN, D.E., EVANS, H,T.,JR 1973.Job 9214: indexing and

least squares refinement of powder diffraction data. b.d.

SrO b.d. Stilbite, “heulandite”, and analcime are

common, natrolite and thomsonite are rare. Electron-microprobe

analyses were conducted at the Regional Microprobe Centre at Dalhousie

University and the XRD analyses at the Geological Survey of Canada

(Atlantic). 3.8

K b.d. Stop 11.2, Five Islands Provincial Park. 1). Chabazite was

reported by Sabina (1965) from Mink Cove and Cape Split, but we have

found no samples at Arlington Quarry and Morden (Pe-Piper 2000).

Mordenite, which is common in Kings County, has not been found on the

North Shore of the Minas Basin.

The zeolite mineral assemblages vary in each study locality on the

North Shore of the Minas Basin. b.d.

Si/Al 2.63 2.77 2.81 2.97

E% -22.0 -20.3 3.5 3.1

Mineral Stilbite

Sample Z401

Analysis No. 72

Si 26.92

Al 9.08



Ca 4.18

Na 0.71

K b.d.

Si/Al 2.97

E% 0.1

Notes: WC = Woodworth Cove

AV = Amethyst Cove

BARTH-WIRSCHING, U., HOLLER, H. b.d. The natrolite and tetranatrolite from Arlington Quarry in

hand specimen do not differ from those from North Shore and their

chemical characteristics are also similar (Fig. b.d. Book privately

published, 37 p.

On geological criteria, the relative timing of crystallisation is

much less clear. The oldest basaltic clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation

contain sparse zeolite in amygdales even where matrix zeolite is absent,

suggesting that the oldest zeolitization predated erosion of the clasts

at fault scarps in the basalt, However, the predominant zeolitization

appears to affect the McCoy Brook Formation and the North Mountain

Basalt equally. The chemical range of

“heulandite” is similar to that at Morden (Pe-Piper 2000),

except that no Na-clinoptilolite or K-heulandite has been found in the

present study. In: Tectonic, depositional, and

paleoecological history of Early Mesozoic rift basins, eastern North

America. Schlische and Olsen (1989) noted that narrow

neptunian dykes are commonly silicified, and that cataclastic basalt

contains chabazite, but some faults that they interpreted as almost

syn-depositional lack zeolite mineralisation.

Chabazite to gmelinite to barite

PASSAGLIA, E. American Journal of

Science, v. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.

27, pp. This area thus provides the opportunity to

determine the relative timing of zeolite mineral formation, in

relationship to synchronous faulting.

Eighty-seven representative samples from the North Shore and eleven

samples from Kings County were selected for X-ray diffraction. 0.11 0.16 1.7

Na 13.78 15.41 15.08 14.88 12.09

K b.d. 80 80 80

Si 24.28 24.3 24.49

Al 15.97 15.96 15.25

Fe b.d. Clasts in the talus-slope and debris-flow deposits

(Fig. 3). Heulandite (sensu stricto) and stilbite are

abundant in Arlington Quarry and very little Na was accommodated in

their crystal structures. Where possible, analyses with a

chemical balance error (E) (Passaglia 1975) of 10% are given in the

table and illustrated in Figures 5 and 6, but in cases where no other

analyses were available, some analyses with higher balance errors are

included. In contrast to Arlington

Quarry, within individual crystals of mesolite from the North Shore, Si,

Al, and Ca increase from core to rim and K was detected, but

(Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) from the two areas is similar.

COPYRIGHT 2002 Atlantic Geoscience Society

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

DEWET, C.C.B., HUBERT, J.F. Zeolite samples were collected on

the east side of the headland and are common in joints, veins, and vugs.

Epistilbite is generally vitreous and colourless to pink.

Where columnar joints in basalt have been progressively widened,

they commonly filled with neptunian dykes of red sandstone and mudstone

(Fig. 305-330.

Stilbite commonly occurs as vitreous sheaves or plates (Fig. b.d. 80 80 96 96

Si 22.13 22.18 33.70 33.38

Al 17.86 17.64 14.36 14.63

Ca 6.32 6.40 b.d. 5 and 6, zeolites from Arlington Quarry cluster much

more tightly than those from the North Shore. b.d. The upper part of the format ion consists of red

fluvial sandstone. 0.49 0.6 b.d.

Si/Al 2.61 2.85 3.12 3.13 3.06

E% 1.9 1.2 -5.2 -2.5 -6.1

Mineral Stilbite Stilbite

Sample Z230 Z31 Z31

Analysis No. b.d. Calcite, silica

minerals, and barite, the last of which occurs alone or with quartz, are

commonly associated with the zeolite minerals.

“Heulandite” from Arlington Quarry is generally pink,

earthy, and massive, and shows three clusters in terms of Si/Al ratio at

~4.5, ~3.1, and ~2.8 (Fig. 1989; Stevens 1987; Olsen 1989). 1995. 1965-1976.

The zeolites identified in the Five Island area are chabazite,

“heulandite”, barrerite, and stilbite. Des nodules de quartz et d’


The vesicular and jointed basalt at Cape Sharp also overlies red

sandstone of the Blomidon Formation. Schlische and Olsen

(1989) also described extensive outcrops of “rubblized” basalt

(Fig. b.d.

Na 5.29 5.58 14.12 14.59

K b.d. 771 772 859

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 45.53 45.09 46.17

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 25.40 25.12 24.38

[FeO.sup.t] b.d. Nova Scotia Department of

Natural Resources, Mines and Energy Branch, Open File Report 96-001, 3O


Other North Shore localities

Hydrothermal origin of zeolites

OLSEN, P.E. b.d. We have analysed gmelinite and

analcime, with gmelinite having been the first to crystallize.

GREENOUGH, J.D., JONES, L.M., MOSSMAN, D.J. They were interpreted by Schlische and Olsen (1989) to

represent active tectonic extension of the North Mountain Basalt and

filling of fractures by sediment from above. Les matieres

predominantes remplissant let vacuoles dans Ic basalte sont Ia

caladonite et la silice, en compagnie de petites quantites

d’, de chabasite et d’analcime.

Les clastes basaltiques let plus ages a l’interieur de la Formation

de McCoy Brook renferment un assemblage mineral analogue (notamment de

l’ et de la chabasite de faible

densite) dans let geodes, ce qui laisse supposer que la zeolitisation la

plus ancienne a precede I’erosion des clasres aux escarpements des

failles dans le basalte. 3.14 0.54

Total 85.03 84.59 85.63 86.01

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 1987. Basalt breccias and

conglomerates in the Lower Jurassic McCoy Brook Formation, Fundy Basin,

Nova Scotia: differentiation of talus and debris-flow deposits. 48 49 176 180

Locality WassonBluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.61 58.88 57.19 58.05

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.81 16.54 16.88 15.67

CaO 5.05 5.24 4.71 5.97

[Na.sub.2]O 1.11 0.40 0.70 0.73

[K.sub.2]O 1.31 1.09 2.40 0.74

BaO b.d. New petrographic evidence in Pe-Piper (2000), such as

the repetitive zonation in some amygdales and the amount of metal

precipitates, suggest a hydrothermal origin. 715 721 722 723

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 47.08 66.38 65.26 63.85

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.40 12.37 12.73 12.77

[FeO.sup.t] b.d.

MgO b.d.

CaO 2.59 6.35 6.62 6.57

[Na.sub.2]O 12.40 0.19 0.22 0.19

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. Most other

minerals show a narrow range of compositions, particularly in Si/Al




In summary, the work of Schlische and Olsen (1989) showed that

extrusion of North Mountain Basalt and deposition of the immediately

overlying sediments of the McCoy Brook Formation took place during

active strike-slip faulting and the formation of a small transtensional

graben (Fig. 90 94 142 146

Locality Wasson Bluff Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.94 58.02 59.24 59.01

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 21.93 22.05 22.27 21.95

CaO b.d. 0.29

Total 85.17 86.01 85.38 87.25

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 0.55

CaO 14.55 14.71 14.55 13.50

[Na.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. 0.44

Ca 8.29 8.31 8.24 7.7

Na b.d. 72 48 48 72

Si 27.26 18.43 18.27 27.78

Al 8.87 5.82 5.94 7.86

Ca 3.91 1.83 1.68 2.15

Na 0.53 0.68 1.33 3.99

K b.d. 21).

Tetranatrolite resembles natrolite and was identified only by

chemical analysis.

Chabazite + “heulandite” + quartz to stilbite,

Gmelinite is generally pink and vitreous with well formed

colourless hexagonal dipyramid, prism and pinacoid crystals (Fig. b.d. 2k), presumably reflecting the

greater brittleness of the basalt. Barth-Wirshing and Holler (1989) suggested that

chabazite forms from basaltic glass at temperatures of 50-150[degrees]

C, whereas heulandite forms from rhyolitic glass at temperatures of

150-225[degrees]C. 52 53 20 21

Locality Partridge Is. Rocks younger than

the McCoy Brook Formation are not present in the region, so that the age

of the youngest zeolitization cannot be determined.

“Heulandite” to silica minerals to “heulandite”

to stilbite

The zeolite minerals identified on the North Shore of the Minas

Basin include “heulandite”, chabazite, gmelinite, analcime,

wairakite, stilbite, barrerite, natrolite, scolecite, mesolite,

thomsonite, laumontite, stellerite, tetranatrolite, and epistilbite. Amygdaloidal basalt flows have amygdale fillings principally of celadonite and silica minerals, with minor

amounts of zeolite. Field

identification was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electron

microprobe chemical analyses.

Cape Sharp

Scolecite was not identified in the field and detected only by XRD.

Kotz, J.C., PURCELL, K.F. 4e).


Partridge Island

SCHLISCHE, R.W. The extracts were then powdered

using an agate mortar and pestle. 1.25 1.06 1.70

BaO b.d.

SrO b.d.

Total 83.13 86.57 85.06 82.82

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 1989). Zeolites in the basalt are mostly in

veins and less commonly in cavities.


Les analyses par diffraction des rayons X et par microsonde

electronique revelent Ia presence des assemblages ci-apres dans Ics

coulees basaltiques et les roches sedimentaires silicoclastiques

sus-jacentes le long du rivage nord du Minas Basin: Five Islands –

predominance de chabasite et de stilbite, ainsi qu’

heulandite et barrerite; Two Islands — analcime (predominance), ainsi

que gmdinite, chabasite, stilbite et natrolite; Wasson Bluff-

predominance de chabasite, de stilbite et d’heulandite

, ainsi qu’herschalite, barrerite, stellerite, analcime,

wairakite, natrolite, clinoprilolite et thomsonite; Partridge Island –

predominance de chabasite et de stilbite, ainsi qu’analcime,

epistilbite, natrolite, barrerite, et heulandite ; Cape Sharp -

chabasite, stilbite, barrerite, stellerite et heulandite

; Horseshoe Cove — heulandite et stilbite; Cape

d’Or Quest — predominance d’analcime, de stilbite, de

natrolite et de mesolite, ainsi que stelldrite, epistilbite, barrerite,

scolecite, chabasite , heulandite , wairakite, retranatrolite et


This work was supported partly by the Natural Sciences and

Engineering Council of Canada Research Grant. Edited by P.E. Ackermann et al. 1836. b.d. 0.51 b.d. Some of the thinner neptunian dykes

appear to be silicified (Schlische and Olsen 1989). b.d. 97 98 161 162

Locality Wasson Bluff Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 55.14 57.42 59.69 57.08

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.65 18.34 19.49 19.18

CaO 8.70 7.66 8.58 8.58

[Na.sub.2]O 4.59 3.53 2.58 3.32

[K.sub.2]O 1.03 0.86 0.68 0.85



Total 87.11 87.81 91.02 89.01

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 80 80 80 80

Si 24.59 24.54 24.56 22.28

Al 15.36 15.43 15.33 17.63

Ca 4.81 5.27 5.34 6.21

Na 5.95 5.02 5.11 5.57

K b.d. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 26.96 26.95 27.12 27.16 27.16

Al 8.86 8.79 8.99 9.00 8.94



Ca 4.25 4.32 3.85 3.68 3.71

Na 1.08 1.09 b.d. Nine types of

zeolite were identified: epistilbite, scolecite, stilbite, stellerite,

heulandite (sensu stricto), clinoptilolite, mesolite, thomsonite, and

rare analcime (Table 2). Booth, personal communication, 1999). b.d. Pe-Piper (2000) proposed that the abundance of mordenite in

Kings County was in part related to extraction of Na from evaporites of

the Blomidon Formation. As temperatures fell, Na enrichment of the

circulating fluids resulted in crystallization of Na-rich zeolite

minerals, such as natrolite. b.d.

CaO 12.75 1.43 b.d. 860 862 863 773

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 45.55 45.76 46.07 38.58

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 24.78 25.19 24.66 30.17

[FeO.sup.t] b.d. 0.92 1.56

[Na.sub.2]O 4.39 15.56 16.19 15.06 14.92

[K.sub.2]O 1.76 b.d. (The outcrops are

inaccessible in the cliff, but have been sampled from modern talus).


“Heulandite” is generally vitreous and colourless to pink

to reddish orange (Fig. These representative spots were analysed by a

JEOL-733 with four wavelength spectrometers and a Tracor Northern 145-eV

energy dispersive system detector at the Department of Earth Sciences,

Dalhousie University. The McCoy Brook Formation

sedimentary rocks are host to, or cut by veins of,

“heulandite”, chabazite, stellerite, and silica minerals. b.d.

[Na.sub.2]O 5.18 5.45 12.06 13.02

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. The following sequences of

crystallization are recognised, from early to late:

Horseshoe Cove

How, H. b.d.

SrO 0.69 0.54 4.18 1.91

Total 82.58 83.01 86.06 83.07

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. As a result, only limited crystallization of Na-rich

zeolites (natrolite group) took place in the North Shore occurrences,

and the observed zeolites show a broad scatter in Na, Ca, Mg, and K

(Fig. Zeolites fill vugs in the basalt. 4h), either pink

or colourless. Clinoptilolite has

Si/Al4, whereas heulandite (sensu stricto) has values between 2.5

and 3. The associated

minerals include quartz, other forms of silica, malachite and magnetite.

Data are insufficient to determine an overall order of crystallization,

but sequences of quartz to stilbite, quartz to “heulandite”,

stilbite to laumontite, and mesolite to quartz are seen.

WITHJACK, M.O., OLSEN, P.E., SCHLISCHE, R.W. All rights reserved.

Arlington Quarry (Fig. 756-765).

High-temperature solutions are thus more likely to precipitate Ca-rich

zeolites than Na-rich zeolites. In individual crystals, Si content

decreases from core to rim, whereas Al and K increase, and Ca first

increases and then decreases. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.08 27.19 27.02 27.10

Al 9.15 8.81 9.19 9.30

Ca 3.19 3.30 3.68 3.20

Na 1.42 1.83 0.75 0.85

K 0.41 0.37 0.25 0.45

Si/Al 2.96 3.09 2.94 2.91

E% 11.4 0.1 9.9 20.8

Mineral Gmelinite “Heulandite”

Sample W193 W108

Analysis No. b.d. Within individual

crystals, Si, Al, Ca, and Na generally decrease from core to rim,

whereas Fe and Mg decrease. Gmelinite

was reported by Gilpin (1881) and natrolite by Walker and Parsons

(1922), but we did not identify those zeolite minerals. Journal

of Sedimentary Petrology, v. Late

fractures in the basalt flows predominantly contain chabazite.

DONOHOE, H.V. 65-77.

AUMENTO, F. 72 72 72 72

Si 26.98 27.53 27.55 26.60

Al 9.16 8.49 8.54 9.13



Ca 3.96 3.89 3.83 4.36

Na 0.49 0.46 0.35 1.48

K 0.18 0.19 0.18 b.d.

Si/Al 2.95 3.24 3.23 2.91

E% 6.6 0.6 4.3 -10.6

Mineral Stellerite

Sample Z40

Analysis No. U.S. The precipitation of

“heulandite”, a high-temperature zeolite, after stilbite, a

lower temperature zeolite, is noteworthy.

Wasson Bluff

Zeolites from basalt at Cape d’Or were collected from both

Horseshoe Cove in the east and the western part of Cape d’Or near

the lighthouse. b.d. 1.7

Na 3.82 14.4 15.24 11.71

K b.d. Edited by P.E. AND OLSEN, P.E. 2d). Ailleurs au North

Mountain, la pressence de mordenite, de natrolite et de laumontite a ute

confirmee. b.d. 1985. Analyses of stilbite

from the two areas shows similar Si/Al and (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratios (Fig.

6). (1995), the

Blomidon Formation contains a chaotic mudstone which can be traced for

35 km in the Fundy Rift Basin. Thomsonite from the North Shore has a higher

Si/Al ratio average of 1.25 (Fig. These thin

flows are not recognised on North Mountain and appear to be correlative with the flows at Wasson Bluff.

. 6a), lower Fe, Mg, and Ca, and Na

increases from core to rim of individual crystals. b.d. b.d.

Ca 7.35 0.79 b.d. As a result, average

(Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) is lower (Fig. Thomsonite, mesolite, and wairakite have narrow

compositional ranges. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.26 27.15 27.34 27.04

Al 8.7 8.82 8.68 8.91



Ca 4.12 4.13 4.15 4.24

Na 0.64 0.7 0.32 0.48

K b.d. At lower lemperatures on Ihe North Shore, Na was

accommodated in the structure ofchabazite and other zeolites such as

analcime, and final crystallisation was represented by only small

amounls of Na-rich zeolites (natrolite group).

Chabazite is usually vitreous and salmon pink, yellow, or

colourless. b.d. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.24 27.55 27.18 27.61

Al 9.37 9.17 9.46 8.79

Ca 2.56 2.64 2.40 3.04

Na 1.02 0.37 0.65 0.67

K 0.79 0.66 1.46 0.45

Si/Al 2.91 3.00 2.87 3.14

E% 35.3 45.4 37.1 21.9

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample W94 153

Analysis No. b.d. 1994. Saunders College Publishing, Montreal, 1020 p.

Analcime is generally vitreous and granular (Fig. 731 732 735 756 799

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 57.82 59.38 61.86 61.47 57.9

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.94 16.57 17.8 17.05 16.41



CaO 8.11 8.14 9.04 8.83 7.85

[Na.sub.2]O 0.67 0.19 0.79 0.51 0.49

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. In contrast, on the North Shore, all epistilbite, thomsonite,

and mesolite analyses lie in this field, together with wairakite and

many chabazite analyses, two minerals not analyzed from Kings County.

At Wasson Bluff, basalt flows of the North Mountain Basalt and

overlying siliciclastic sediments of the McCoy Brook Formation are all

dismembered by synchronous movement on the nearby left-lateral

Portapique Fault. 48 48 48 72

Si 16.37 16.46 16.00 29.39

Al 7.13 7.15 6.98 6.71

Ca 1.40 1.75 1.53 2.78

Na 6.20 5.09 7.94 0.49

K 0.11 0.13 0.06 0.26

Si/Al 2.30 2.30 2.29 4.38

E% -21.7 -17.9 -36.9 6.5

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample W102 W88 W120

Analysis No. 1996. 0.12 0.85 1.03 0.84

Si/Al 3.04 3.29 3.02 3.02 3.04

E% -7.5 -10.8 5.2 7.2 4.9

Mineral Stilbite Stellerite

Sample Z33 Z40

Analysis No. 190 191 99 101 102

Locality WassonBluff CapeSharp

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 55.44 55.17 57.68 59.75 59.12

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.99 17.83 16.33 16.30 16.43

CaO 8.11 7.98 7.79 8.46 8.28

[Na.sub.2]O 0.49 0.59 0.71 0.74 0.74

[K.sub.2]O 2.60 2.56 b.d. B.Sc. The Scots Bay Formation,

Nova Scotia, Canada, a Jurassic carbonate lake with silica-rich

hydrothermal springs. 0.2 1.37

Total 82.54 85.15 89.49 88.6 84.02

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. Zeolite mineral assemblages in

the North Mountain Basalt, Nova Scotia. Barr

The earliest Jurassic (Hettangian) North Mountain Basalt of the Bay

of Fundy has long been known for its rich assemblage of zeolite minerals

in amygdales, vugs, and fractures (Aumento 1966). It commonly occurs in cubic rhombohedra and is rarely



Total 86.71 86.93 88.34 85.97

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 1989. b.d. 1997. The zeolites of Nova

Scotia. Chemistry and Chemical

Reactivity. b.d.

Si/Al 1.56 1.54 1.59 1.09

E% -6.3 -5.8 -6.8 -4.6

Mineral Thomsonite Natrolite Tetranatrolite

Sample Z33 Z19 Z44 Z44

Analysis No. 0.48 0.41 1.03

Si/Al 3.07 3.17 3.08 3.54

E% 6.3 21.2 16.2 -15.6

Mineral Barrerite Natrolite

Sample W168 Z303 Z270

Analysis No. 151 152 22 24 138

Locality Caped’Or Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.75 49.41 48.60 48.39 48.83

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.26 26.40 26.09 26.09 26.02

CaO 1.82 b.d. Within

individual crystals, Ca and K generally decrease from core to rim,

whereas Na and Si increase.

Scolecite to stilbite

Two Islands

Heulandite (sensu stricto) to clinoptilolite to stilbite

TANNER, L.H., HUBERT, J.F. The “heulandite” from the North

Shore shows the same clusters of Si/Al ratio (Fig. Zeolites at Wasson Bluff commonly

occur in basalt, conglomerate with basalt clasts, and less commonly in

sandstone, but on average make up no more than 3% of the overall rock.

The zeolites are mainly found in veins, less commonly in cavities and

the amygdales and groundmass of basalt, and only in a few fault zones.

Sinistral strike-slip movement along the Portapique Fault, a few hundred

metres north of the coastal outcrops, formed small transtensional

grabens in which McCoy Brook Formation clastic sediments accumulated.

The predominant lithology in the lower part of the McCoy Brook Formation

is eolian dune sandstone, but lacustrine mudstone and talus slope

debris-flow breccia of matrix-supported basalt clasts (Tanner and Hubert

1991) are also present. b.d.



Total 87.20 87.13 91.53 92.24

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. The

star-like crystal habit is distinctive.

Other North Shore localities are described from east to west. The samples were then analysed using a Siemens Cristaloflex

diffractometer, CoK[alpha] radiation, and a scan from 2[degrees] to

42[degrees] 20 at a speed of 0.250 20/min. b.d. b.d. Journal reviews by John Greenough, Greg McHone and David

McMullin substantially improved this paper.

PE-PIPER, G. b.d. b.d.



Total 93.14 93.68 94.92 94.38

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 72 72 72 72

Si 26.12 26.43 27.36 27.69

Al 9.88 9.69 8.8 8.79



Ca 9.4 8.97 2.95 4.06

Na 0.7 0.63 0.43 0.89

K b.d. 48 48 72 72 72

Si 17.38 17.78 27.17 27.15 27.03

Al 6.65 6.24 8.71 8.79 8.83



Ca 3.08 2.92 2.9 3.44 4.15

Na 0.37 0.33 0.94 1.54 1.1

K b.d. of

Commerce, NTIS Document, PB-21188.

Zeolites of the North Shore of the Minas Basin

Natrolite is generally beige to white, massive or as radiating

fibres, dull, and brittle (Fig. With falling temperature the crystallizing solution

became enriched in Na, and sodic zeolite minerals, such as natrolite,

began to crystallize. 152-159.

Laumontite is milky white and subvitreous to vitreous. Gesner (1836) reported that

a mass of stilbite of over 200 lbs fell from a cliff in 1834. AND HORTON, D. b.d.

Total 84.42 83.55 84.89

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. Veins of zeolite

cutting basalt are also recognised in basalt clasts in the talus-slope

deposits (Fig. An internal standard (scolecite) was used in

addition to the standard regularly used. Aux tempeatures

inferieures de la cote nord, leNa a incorpore dans Ia structure de la

chabasite et des au tres zeolites telles que l’analcime, et la

cristallisation finale etait representee par des quantites reduites

seulement de zeolites riches en Na (groupe de la natrolite).

Epistilbite is not easy to identify in hand specimen and most of

the epistilbite identifications are from XRD and electron microprobe

chemical analyses. 1975. Zeolite minerals

identified in this study at Arlington Quarry (representative locality

from Kings County) include heulandite (sensa stricto) , clinoptiolite,

stilbite, stellerite, scolecite, analcime, epistilbite, thomsonite, and

mesolite. The associated minerals

include quartz, calcite, and barite.

GESNER, A. b.d. b.d. b.d. (hons) thesis, Acadia University,

Wolfville, N.S., 48 p.

The basalt has well developed columnar joints, some of which appear

to have been rotated by local fault movement (Schlische and Olsen 1989).

Neptunian dykes of fine red sandstone and mudstone occupy joints between

cooling columns and sinuous fractures in the basalt (Figs. This effect is not simply

the result of a greater geographic range on the North Shore, as analyses

from the Morden area reported by Pe-Piper (2000), from localities up to

30 km apart, show tight clusters similar to those from Arlington Quarry.

At both Arlington Quarry and the Morden area (Pe-Piper 2000), few

zeolites fall in the field in Figure 5 with either Ca+Mg 70% or Na

70%. 726 754 785 786

Locality Arlington Quarry Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.94 57.31 56.92 55.85

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.41 15.79 15.32 15.61



CaO 8.04 8.13 8.07 8.18

[Na.sub.2]O 0.69 0.76 0.34 0.51

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. b.d. Dept. The Minas Basin, at the eastern end of the

Bay of Fundy, is a half-graben with the master fault on the north side

showing strong left-lateral movement synchronous with basalt extrusion

(Withjack et al. 947 948 949 852

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 58.21 60.36 59.47 56.64

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.76 15.78 15.63 16.49



CaO 7.97 7.96 7.71 8.67

[Na.sub.2]O 0.55 0.52 0.39 1.63

[K.sub.2]O 0.31 0.33 0.3 b.d.

Total 83.8 84.95 83.5 83.43

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 2000. b.d. 0.28

K b.d. On the North Shore of the Minas Basin, Mertz and

Hubert (1990) described only gypsum precipitation. Geological Society of America Centennial Field Guide, Northeastern Section, v. Well crystallized “heulandite”

can easily be identified by its coffin-shaped crystal habit. Chabazite

shows a wide range of compositions from almost zero to 65% Ca+Mg.

Stilbite and epistilbite show a wider range in K content than that

reported by Pe-Piper (2000) from Morden. Slickensides in the basalt cataclasite are developed in

quartz and celadonite.

The fault zone cutting sandstone of the McCoy Brook Formation that

shows hydroplastic slickensides described by Schlische and Olsen (1989)

also has sub-parallel zeolite veins and veins of silicified sediment.

Thin silica veins have been found in other faults cutting sandstone of

the McCoy Brook Formation.

Zeolites occur only locally in the McCoy Brook Formation. 2710-2717.

ACKERMANN, R.V., SCHLISCHE, R.W., OLSEN, P.E. b.d. Fieldtrip guide for the International Zeolite Association, 9th

International Zeolite Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp. 774 877 710 714

Locality Arlington WC AC


Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 38.42 47.06 47.22 47.20

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 29.15 26.25 26.55 26.41

[FeO.sup.t] 1.80 b.d. In contrast, on the

North Shore the chemical data presented in this paper indicate that Na

was readily accommodated in the crystal structure of crystallizing

zeolites, which we interpret as a result of crystallization at lower

temperatures. Because of the difficulty of

discriminating accurately heulandite from clinoptilolite, we use the

term “heulandite” to include both minerals.


KONTAK, D.J. 3.68

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 3). The widest neptunian dykes

are orthogonal to the regional extension direction. b.d. A description of the

mineralogy and geology of a part of Nova Scotia. The mineralogy of Nova Scotia: a report to the

provincial government. 36, pp. 1).

Date received: August 9,2002Date accepted: December 2, 2002

Previous work on the zeolites of the North Shore of the Minas Basin

has been reported by Jackson and Alger (1828), Gesner (1836), How

(1868), Gilpin (1881), Walker and Parsons (1922), Sabina (1965), Aumento

(1966), Donohoe et al. 15-27

Silica minerals including quartz to “heulandite”

Wasson Bluff

Sequence of crystallisation of zeolites and other secondary

minerals is based on two types of evidence. Within the McCoy Brook Formation, slickensides in red

sandstone and mudstone were interpreted by Schlische and Olsen (1989) as

hydroplastic, having formed in incompletely lithifled sediment.

SABINA, A.P. 6b). b.d. b.d. University of Toronto Studies, Series 14, Contributions to

Canadian Mineralogy, pp. b.d.

Si/Al 1.58 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.59

E% -1.4 0.3 1.4 2.8 -1.2

Mineral Tetranatrolite

Sample Z270

Analysis No. 174

Locality Arlington


Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 57.72

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.51



CaO 8.37

[Na.sub.2]O 0.78

[K.sub.2]O b.d.

Total 83.38

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. The basalt of the

North Shore hosts zeolites in pipes, joints, veins, fractures, cavities,

and fault zones, and in the amygdales and groundmass of the basalt. b.d.

Si/Al 2.17 2.23 2.26 2.28

E% 0.5 -1.5 1.0 -0.6

Mineral Wairakite Wairakite

Sample Z51 Z675

Analysis No. The

study areas of the North Shore include localities known as Five Islands,

Two Islands, Wasson Bluff, Partridge Island, Gape Sharp, Horseshoe Cove,

and western Cape d’Or (Fig. 0.49 0.82

Na 4.00 15.02 15.41 14.38 14.24

K 1.18 b.d. 31.

Editorial responsibility: Sandra M. b.d. 4a).

All zeolite minerals previously reported from the North Mountain

Basalt, except gyrolite, levyne, and mordenite, have also been

identified along the North Shore of the Minas Basin. 6a), two types of

“heulandite” can be distinguished. Halifax, N.S., 217 p.

Previous studies suggested that the zeolite formation in the North

Mountain Basalt was the result of burial metamorphism (e.g. 5, pp. Most of the studies of

zeolite minerals on the North Shore were conducted before the

development of analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and

electron microprobe chemical analyses, and even the more recent studies

have not included electron microprobe chemical analyses. 1989.

Petrochemical and stratigraphic aspects of the North Mountain basalt

from the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. b.d.

Si/Al 1.60 1.59 1.60 1.26

E% -1.4 -0.8 -2.9 -1.9

Mineral Thomsonite Analcime

Sample Z51 W102

Analysis No. 5).

The zeolites we identified at this locality are the same as those

reported by Booth (1994) and Donohoe et al. 1980. 415-420.

MERTZ, K.A., JR., HUBERT, J.F. 80 80 80 80

Si 20.67 24.12 24.17 24.24

Al 18.49 15.86 16.02 15.99

Fe 0.81 b.d. 1992. b.d. 1966. In:

Tectonic, depositional, and paleoecological history of Early Mesozoic

rift basins, eastern North America. 2a). b.d. Zeolite rosettes 5-20 mm in diameter appear to have

precipitated in situ in the muddy matrix of the debris-flow deposits

within a few metres of these faults. b.d.

Na 14.75 15.06 14.61 14.71

K b.d. 48 48 48 48

Si 17.8 18.17 18.11 18.31

Al 6.16 5.8 5.86 5.72



Ca 2.78 2.79 2.7 2.64

Na 0.73 0.34 0.58 0.18

K b.d. b.d. Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 59.64 49.15 49.82 49.97 49.59

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 14.07 26.57 26.93 26.52 26.59

CaO 3.19 0.29 b.d. Zeolites

are common in veins and at western Cape d’Or, also in joints.

Study areas on the North Shore of the Minas Basin include Wasson

Bluff, Cape Sharp, Five Islands, Partridge Island, Horseshoe Cove,

Western Cape d’Or, and Two Islands (Fig. In comparison, on the North Shore the

temperature of zeolite formation was probably lower, so that Na was

accommodated in the structure of chabazite and other zeolites (e.g.,

analcime) and finally only small amounts of Na-rich zeolites (natrolite

group) crystallized at the lowermost temperatures. Rosettes

of quartz and either “heulandite” or stellerite appear to have

precipitated in situ in the muddy matrix of talus and debris-flow

deposits within a few metres of these faults.

Analcime to analcime + “heulandite” to natrolite to


Selected chemical analyses of zeolite minerals from the North Shore

of Minas Basin are given in Table 1. 2000. Olsen and P.J.W. Some eolian sandstone has abundant

patches of concretions 5-10 mm in diameter that consist of sandstone

cemented by stellerite. 0.11 0.81

Si/Al 3.08 3.04 2.95 3.09 2.69

E% 0.6 3.2 0.4 -0.3 -0.9

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample Z33 Z36

Analysis No. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.

32, pp. b.d. b.d. 96 96 96 96

Si 32.20 33.11 33.28 33.35

Al 14.82 14.83 14.75 14.63

Ca b.d. Celadonite, silica minerals, “heulandite,”

analcime, and chabazite predominate in amygdales in the basalt flows and

in basalt clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation, suggesting that these

minerals were “early” (Fig. b.d. b.d. III,

New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland.

Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 8, 106 p.

On a Si/Al – (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) plot (Fig. Analcime from Wasson Bluff is commonly

present as well formed trapezohedra growing on other crystals such as

twinned heulandite.

Stellerite was identified only by XRD and chemical analysis, but in

hand specimen resembles stilbite.

Stilbite from Arlington Quarry is generally sheaf-like, vitreous,

and colourless, resembling that of the North Shore. Tectonic

evolution of Fundy basin, Canada: Evidence for extension and shortening

during passive margin formation. b.d. b.d. Minerals associated with the

zeolite minerals include quartz and other forms of silica (e.g.,

chalcedony, amethyst, agate, jaspar, opal), malachite, mica, barite, and


BOOTH, I. Cycles of sand-fiat

sandstone and playa-lacustrine mudstone in the Triassic-Jurassic

Blomidon redbeds, Fundy rift basin, Nova Scotia: implications for

tectonic and climatic controls. 789 792 794 798 802

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.76 55.66 57.62 57.65 55.22

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.82 15.39 16.21 16.2 15.42



CaO 8.35 8.32 7.64 7.29 7.03

[Na.sub.2]O 1.17 1.16 b.d. The crystal chemistry of mordenites.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. b.d. 1215-1232.

Wairakite is generally vitreous with well formed pseudo-octahedral

to pseudo-icositetrahedral colourless crystals that can be confused with

analcime (Fig. Gossip and Coade, Times Office, Halifax, N.S.


At Wasson Bluff, celadonite, silica minerals,

“heulandite”, analcime, and chabazite in amygdales in the

basalt flows and in basalt clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation formed

before deposition of the McCoy Brook Formation sedimentary rocks began.

Veins and concretions of “heulandite”, chabazite, stellerite,

and silica minerals in these sedimentary rocks are later.

Sixteen zeolite minerals have been identified along the North Shore

of the Minas Basin. Minerals associated with the zeolites include

green celadonite, malachite, quartz and other forms of silica, barite,

calcite, and fluoroapophyllite. Zeolite minerals, Nova Scotia. Within individual crystals Si, Al, Ca,

Na, and [H.sub.2]O decrease from core to rim. 6a), less Ca, and

more K and Na; minor Mg was also detected. b.d.

Mg b.d. 4c).

The Wasson Bluff section is the best area on the North Shore to

study the geological events related to the formation of the

zeolite-minerals (Figs. 5a). A study of the zeolites of the North Mountain

Basalt in the core GAV-77-3. b.d.



Total 82.93 82.25 81.00 81.55

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 0.21 0.21 3.28

[Na.sub.2]O 14.18 16.00 15.41 15.41 12.41

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 163 164 8 9

Locality Cape d’Or Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.76 58.01 53.85 54.39

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 19.12 18.84 17.31 17.55

CaO 8.07 8.80 8.02 7.19

[Na.sub.2]O 3.81 2.79 3.85 4.63

[K.sub.2]O 0.70 0.67 0.82 0.95



Total 89.46 89.11 83.85 84.71

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. In: Poole, W.J.

(ed), Geology of parts of the Atlantic Provinces. 3). 0.22

Mg b.d. b.d. 6a) than at Arlington Quarry. 1995.

Syn-sedimentary collapse of portions of the lower Blomidon Formation,

Fundy rift basin, Nova Scotia. Tanner and Hubert (1991) noted

that the talus slope breccia included zeolite-filled fractures cutting

both clasts and matrix. 1987. Most crystals are well formed and easily identified, but

the massive form resembles massive heulandite, making positive

identification by eye difficult. 6).

Thomsonite is generally massive or fibrous, beige to off-white.

The North Shore of the Minas Basin is part of the

Cobequid-Chedabucto fault system that was active during the Triassic and

Jurassic (Stevens 1987; Withjack etal. The mixture of methanol and sample

was then mounted on a glass slide using a micro-pipette and allowed to

dry. b.d. Geological Association

of Canada and Mineralogical Association of Canada, Field Trip 3, pp.



CaO 9.15 9.04 14.34

[Na.sub.2]O 4.34 4.30 b.d.

[K.sub.2]O b.d. The first four

minerals are the most common. 5-26



X-ray diffraction and electron microprobc analyses show Ihe

following assemblages to be present in basalt flows and overlying siliciclastic sedimentary rocks along the Norlh Shore of the Minas

Basin: Five Islands — chabazite and stilbite are dominant, also

“heulandite” and barrerite; Two Islands — analcime is

dominant, gmelinite, chabazite, stilbite, and natrolile; Wasson

Bluff–chabazite, slilbite and “heulandite” are dominant, also

herschelite, barrerite, stellerite, analcime, wairakite, natrolite,

clinoptilolite, and thomsonite; Parlridge Island — chabazite and

stilbite are dominant, also analcime, epistilbite, natrolite, barrerite,

and “heulandite”; Cape Sharp — chabazite, stilbite,

barrerite, stellerite, and “heulandite”; Horseshoe Cove –

“heulandite” and stilbite; Western Cape d’Or — analcime,

stilbite, natrolite, and mesolite are dominant, also stellerite,

?epistilbite, barrerite, scolecite, chabazite, “heulandite”,

wairakite, tetranatrolite and laumontite. 3). Associated

minerals are quartz, chert, other forms of silica, mica, chlorite,

magnetite, and galena. Sedimentology, v. In contrast,

individual crystals from the North Shore show Si and Ca increasing from

core to rim, and Al and Na decreasing.

JACKSON, C.T., ALGER, F. Remarks on the Geology and Mineralogy of Nova

Scotia. b.d. Na-rich zeolites

are represented by natrolite, tetranatrolite, and gmelinite. Mode of occurrence, chemical variations and

genesis of the zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin,

Nova Scotia. Tectonics, v. Other identified zeolites from elsewhere in Kings County

include mordenite, natrolite, tetranatrolite, rare chabazite, analcime,

laumontite gmelinite, and gyrolite (Pe-Piper and Horton 1996; Pe-Piper

2000; and unpublished data). 80 80 80 80 80

Si 24.43 24.55 24.53 24.49 24.52

Al 15.52 15.46 15.52 15.62 15.43

Ca 0.98 b.d. Basaltic cataclasite contains only

rare zeolites, as at Wasson Bluff. 0.21 0.22 0.28

Total 88.47 85.5 85.05 83.66

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d.

Si/Al 1.52 1.52 1.55

E% 6.9 6.9 -6.5

Mineral Scolecite Thomsonite

Sample Z23 Z33

Analysis No. European Journal of Mineralogy, v. Nova Scotian

Institute of Science, Transactions and Proceedings, v. B.Sc. 0.2 1.41 1.72 1.33

Total 82.1 80.73 82.91 82.86 79.29

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. Comparison is made with

assemblages at Arlington Quarry on North Mountain, where the dominant

zeolite minerals are heulandite (sensu stricto) and stilbite. b.d. In individual veins,

amygdales, and vugs, the sequence of minerals from rim to core is

interpreted as a time sequence (Pe-Piper 2000). Careful extraction of minerals helped increase the

recovery of monomineralic samples and a microscope was employed to

ensure purity of the mineral extracts. 0.12

Si/Al 3.13 3.08 3.15 3.04

E% -2.2 -1.5 0.6 -2.0

Mineral Stilbite

Sample Z31

Analysis No. Within the McCoy Brook Formation,

zeolitization is generally restricted to a few discrete zones, including

major faults and near the contact of talus-sl ope deposits with basalt

(again, presumably related to active faulting). Chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids was likely

different between North Mountain and the North Shore, wilh fluids in the

latter area less sodic. b.d. Mode of occurrence, chemical variation and

genesis of mordenite and other associated zeolites from Morden, Nova

Scotia, Canadian Mineralogist, v.38, pp. The temperature ofzeo]ite crystallization appears to have been high at Arlington Quarry, where

“heulandite” and stilbite crystallised with little Na in their

crystal structure. Walker and Parsons

(1922) reported analcime, natrolite, thomsonite, and gmelinite, but we

have not identified those minerals in our samples. 92 93 46 47

Locality Wasson Bluff Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 42.04 42.02 58.38 57.75

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 28.78 28.34 21.09 21.47

CaO 11.20 11.32 b.d. As the temperatures decreased and the

circulating fluids became depleted in Ca, lower temperature, Narich

zeolites (natrolite group) began to crystallize. 1990. b.d. 108 109 111 40

Locality TowIslands WassonBluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 52.55 53.22 51.39 66.27

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 19.42 19.62 19.03 12.38

CaO 4.20 5.28 4.60 5.84

[Na.sub.2]O 10.26 8.49 13.16 0.57

[K.sub.2]O 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.46

BaO b.d. Zeolite minerals in Ihe McCoy Brook Formation sedimentary

rocks are restricted to a few discrete zones, including major faults.

Massive veins within faults consist principally of chabazite. (1992), and Booth (1994). b.d. Basalt exposed on the

North Shore shows the same stratigraphic succession as the main North

Mountain outcrop on the south side of the Bay of Fundy, but tends to be

more tectonized and altered (Greenough et al. 390-405.

At Two Islands, the larger island is entirely basalt and has common

gmelinite and analcime. 1) was selected as a representative

zeolite-bearing locality from the North Mountain Basalt of Kings County.

Sixty-three zeolite samples from the quarry were studied in hand

specimen (Fig. b.d. (hons) thesis, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax,

N.S., 129 p.

Minerals present

Previous Work

New field observations clarify the occurrence of zeolites in the

Wasson Bluff section (Fig. 1881. 80

Si 24.41

Al 15.57

Ca 1.04

Na 13.58

K b.d.

Si/Al 1.57

E% -0.6

b.d. b.d.

Si/Al 1.12 1.52 1.51 1.52

E% -4.8 -0.7 5.2 5.9

Mineral Tetranatrolite “Heulandite”

Sample Z44 Z30

Analysis No. 150-151.


Table 1

Electron microprobe analyses of representative zeolite minerals

Mineral Mesolite Thomsonite

Sample Z270 Z401 Z51

Analysis No. 80 80 80 80

Si 24.21 24.11 24.35 20.68

Al 15.53 15.65 15.37 18.93

Fe b.d. Stilbite generally has a Si/Al ratio between 2.8 and 3.1.

Chabazite of the North Shore has a wide range of compositions, but

within the range reported by Gottardi and Galli (1985). In addition,

wairakite, barrerite, and tetranatrolite, not previously reported, have

been identified. 1989. JR., COLWELL, J.A., GEORGE, E. b.d.

Total 84.88 85.66 85.28 87.25

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. Chabazite is the dominant

zeolite, occurring most commonly in veins. 3), which is cataclastic basalt brecciated along strike-slip fault

zones. Zeolites are also present as irregular veins in the pug of a few

major faults. Arlington Quarry

Heulandite (sensu stricto) to stilbite to clinoptilolite

Recent experimental data on the formation temperatures of natural

zeolites are limited. 1989. 1922. In the North Mountain Basalt, the most prominent

zeolitization is in the columnar-jointed basalt and irregular veins and

vugs, which is a response to the progressive deformation of the basalt

in a strike-slip, pull-apart setting. Peak positions were refined

using the algorithm of Appleman and Evans (1973).

Mineral chemistry: North Shore vs. Experimental studies on

zeolite formation conditions. We thank D.J.W Piper for help in the field and for reviewing

the paper. In the easternmost McCoy Brook Formation basin,

an irregular silicified body (5 m in length, 1 m thick) appears to have

replaced permeable polymictic coarse litharenite. Massive basalt at Partridge Island,

corresponding to the lower lava unit of North Mountain, conformably

overlies the Blomidon Formation. 1995). The difference in chemical

composition of zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin

and from Kings County may be the result of a difference in temperature

of formation and/or different fluid composition.

MILLER, L.J. 50, pp. Zeolites also cement

zones where basalt has been brecciated (Fig. 1991. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 27.18 27.14 26.89 27.12 26.97

Al 8.83 8.93 9.12 8.87 9.01



Ca 4.09 3.99 4.21 4.18 3.92

Na 0.61 0.17 0.67 0.44 0.44

K b.d. Gore, Field trip guidebook

T351, 28th Geological Congress, pp. b.d. 781 783 812 814

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.73 57.3 59.71 59.68

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 18.2 17.69 16.29 16.43



CaO 9.4 8.97 6.01 8.35

[Na.sub.2]O 0.7 0.63 0.48 1.01

[K.sub.2]O b.d. At

Five Islands, the North Mountain Basalt is highly faulted (Greenough et

al. b.d.

Si/Al 1.24 1.26 2.35 2.28

E% -0.3 -4.1 1.7 0.3

Mineral Analcime

Sample Z51 Z270

Analysis No. 139

Locality Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.72

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.35

CaO 1.94

[Na.sub.2]O 13.98

[K.sub.2]O b.d.



Total 90.99

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 58 114 116 119 149

Locality Partridge Is. b.d.

Total 86.78 89.23 89.12 88.45

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 0.87 b.d. The overall

order of crystallization from earliest to latest is: mica to quartz +

amethyst + other forms of silica to chabazite to stilbite to calcite.

ADAMS, G.C. The variation in

evaporite distribution in the Blomidon Formation, from gypsum at the

basin margin to halite in the basin centre, may have influenced the

chemistry of later hydrothermal zeolites.

Copyright 2002 Gale, Cengage Learning. b.d. Let filons massifs persents a

l’interieur des failles sent principalement constitues de c

habasite. 1, pp.


PE-PIPER, G. b.d. b.d. 2e). Natural zeolites.

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 409 p.

Analcime and natrolite are abundant, mesolite and stilbite are

common, and thomsonite, chabazite, laumontite, and

“heulandite” are rare. Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 51.72 52.41 55.29 56.65

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.67 16.05 16.72 16.20

CaO 0.77 0.62 7.93 8.11

[Na.sub.2]O 9.02 8.44 1.06 0.59

[K.sub.2]O 4.75 4.73 b.d. The “heulandite” is present

in the form of rosettes. The oldest basaltic clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation

contain a similar mineral assemblage (including sparse

“heulandite” and chabazire) in amygdales, suggesting that the

oldest zeolitization predated erosion of the clasts at fault scarps in

the basalt. La

temperarure de cristallisation de Ia zeolite semble avoir ete elevee

dans Ia carriere Arlington, ou l’ heulandite et la

stilbite se sont cristallisees en integrant peu de Na dans la structure

de leurs cristaux. 0.12 0.13 0.16

Si/Al 1.51 4.55 4.35 4.25

E% 5.2 2.4 0.8 1.7

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample Z30 Z31

Analysis No. b.d.



Total 88.29 86.71 87.62 87.16

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. The type section of

the North Mountain basalt is overlain by the lacustrine Scots Bay

Formation, whereas the basalt on the North Shore is overlain by

siliciclastic rocks of the Mccoy Brook Formation. A slurry of each of the powdered

samples was created before mounting of the sample on a glass disk.

Methanol was used in the slurry because it evaporates quickly and it

does not react with zeolite minerals. b.d.

BaO 1.56 1.80 b.d. 1828. 24 24 72 72

Si 8.53 8.67 26.60 26.98

Al 3.24 3.13 9.48 9.09

Ca 0.14 0.11 4.09 4.14

Na 2.89 2.71 0.99 0.55

K 1.00 1.00 b.d. The

most common zeolite minerals in this area are chabazite,

“heulandite”, stilbite, and analcime. 2, 3). 442-451.

Overall evidence presented in this study suggests that the

temperature of zeolite crystallization was higher in Arlington Quarry

compared to the North Shore. 761 764 766 767

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 58.31 60.39 59.7 61.9

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.12 16.36 16.38 16.41



CaO 8.51 8.67 8.32 8.34

[Na.sub.2]O 1.23 0.59 0.98 0.31

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d.

Total 86.19 85.93 82.51 85.25 84.57

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. However, many analysed zeolites from the North

Shore ha ve a higher sodium content compared with published values from

elsewhere (Gottardi and Galli 1985).

Cape d’Or

Based on textural relationships between minerals in individual hand

specimens, the following sequences of crystallization are recognised,

from early to late:

Stilbite is abundant and chabazite is common in the area, with

minor “heulandite” and barrerite. The dominant vesicle fillings in basalt are celadonite

and silica minerals, with minor “heulandite”, chabazite, and

analcime. Zeolites of the Bay of Fundy. 0.74 0.99 b.d.

Total 85.32 85.98 82.23 82.74 82.65

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. This differentce is also

supported by the presence of mordenite in some areas of Kings County

(Pe-Piper 2000; Kontak 2000).

Others have made passing observations on the distribution of

zeolites in the Wasson Bluff section. Avec la baisse de la temperature, la solution de

cristallisation s’est enrichie en Na, et les zeolites sodiques,

comme Ia natrolite, ont commence a se cristalliser. b.d. b.d. The host rock is mostly locally vesicular basalt (some

joints filled with red sandstone) overlain by massive basalt. b.d. 4b). b.d. Identifying zeolites in the field was

difficult because commonly more than one zeolite mineral was present in

any one hand specimen. Zeolite

veins cut the talus-slope deposits and zeolites also fill vugs in the

matrix. 72 80 80 80 80

Si 28.05 24.47 24.46 24.61 24.41

Al 7.80 15.60 15.59 15.40 15.49

Ca 1.61 0.16 b.d. A few

zeolite veins cross-cut both the basalt and neptunian dykes, but are

much thinner in the dyke sediments (Fig. Atlantic Geoscience Society, Annual

Colloquium, Program with Abstracts, p. The chemical compositions of individual zeolite minerals can

be illustrated on a Na – K – (Ca+Mg) plot (Fig. 4a),

ranging from colourless to green to white.

Chemical analyses of zeolite minerals from Arlington Quarry are

given in Table 2. Stop 11.3, Wasson Bluff.

Structural Geology and Stratigraphy. Une comparaison a ete effectuee avec des assemblages de Ia

carriere Arlington au North Mountain, ou let zeolites predominantes sont

l’heulandite (au sens strict) et la stilbite. Aumento

1966; Adams 1980). 0.29

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Vol. b.d. 0.62 b.d. Massive

light-pink “heulandite” identified by XRD resembled chabazite

in hand specimen.


The zeolite minerals found on the North Shore of the Minas Basin

differ from those in Kings County and elsewhere on the south coast of

the Bay of Fundy in the presence of wairakite and barrerite, and in the

abundance of chabazite, which is rare on the south coast. 1). b.d.

Ca 5.23 5.22 8.15

Na 4.49 4.49 b.d.

K b.d. 7) and by XRD and electron microprobe. 3.08

[Na.sub.2]O 3.66 14.49 15.35 11.76

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Within individual crystals at Arlington Quarry, Si, Na, and K

decrease from core to rim, whereas Al and Ca increase. b.d. 1965. b.d.

SrO b.d. b.d. According to Ackermann et al. 96 96 24 24

Si 34.20 34.40 8.55 8.55

Al 13.35 13.17 3.24 3.25

Ca 5.12 5.59 1.37 1.21

Na 4.38 3.21 1.19 1.41

K 0.53 0.51 0.17 0.19

Si/Al 2.56 2.61 2.64 2.63

E% -1.0 -11.6 -20.6 -19.2

Mineral Chabazite Stilbite

Sample W166 Z310

Analysis No. 6a). La composition chimique des fluides hydrotbermaux du North

Mountain etait vraisemblablement differente de celle des fluides de Ia

cote nord, les fluides de cette derniere region etant moms sodiques. b.d. 1989. It can also be massive, white, and dull.

Mesolite of Arlington Quarry is white and dull, resembling that of

the North Shore in hand specimen. (1992), except that we did

not identify scolecite and epistilbite. b.d. The dominance of “heulandite” in Kings

County and of chabazite on the North Shore suggests that formation

temperatures were higher in Kings County. The trap minerals of Nova Scotia. (1995) inferred the unit

was formed by subsidence and collapse of a metre thick evaporite-rich

bed by groundwater. Basaltic breccia with a red mudstone

matrix, probably a faulted equivalent of the talus slope breccia seen at

Wasson Bluff, contains zeolites, principally in veins, although some

occur in vugs in the matrix and in amygdales in the basalt clasts.

Mesolite is generally milky white and fibrous with fibres larger

than those of natrolite. b.d.

MgO b.d. b.d. Nevertheless,

significant silicic alteration affects the upper part of the McCoy Brook

Formation containing polymictic pebbly litharenite. 13-73.

The most abundant zeolite on the larger island is analcime, whereas

gmelinite and chabazite are common and stilbite and natrolite are rare

(I. b.d.

MgO 1.09 b.d. Partridge Is.

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 58.55 61.86 60.03 58.53

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.16 16.57 16.55 14.04

CaO 7.83 5.72 5.16 4.22

[Na.sub.2]O 0.59 1.17 2.26 4.33

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 777 778 843 844 724

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.85 58.88 57.23 57.28 57.34

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 18.45 17.52 15.57 15.79 15.89



CaO 9.4 9.01 7.67 6.8 8.22

[Na.sub.2]O 0.62 0.57 1.02 1.68 1.2

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 857-873.

Thomsonite and/or epistilbite to mesolite


Temperatures of zeolite formation

GILPIN, E. b.d. Potential

zeolite minerals were extracted from each sample based on colour and

crystal habit. 14, pp. Both the field and

analytical data in this study have been substantially updated since a

preliminary report by Miller (1997).

In both Figs. The

overall order of crystallization is: quartz to stilbite + quartz to

stilbite to “heulandite” to calcite. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 26.00 26.03 27.10 27.21 27.13

Al 9.95 9.92 9.04 8.75 8.89

Ca 4.08 4.03 3.92 4.13 4.07

Na 0.45 0.54 0.65 0.65 0.66

K 1.56 1.54 b.d. Considerable

discrepancy exists in the zeolite mineral assemblages in each area as

reported by different authors.


STEVENS, G.R. b.d. 5, p. 1995). Chemical variation

between individual zeolite minerals is likely also be a result of

different fluid composition of the hydrothermal waters responsible for

zeolite formation.


Barrerite is generally vitreous, massive, and colourless to pink

(Fig. 141 131 132 91

Locality Cape d’Or Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.05 47.14 47.63 42.31

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 25.46 25.15 25.22 28.40

CaO 8.78 9.45 9.66 11.00

[Na.sub.2]O 6.00 4.97 5.11 5.45

[K.sub.2]O b.d. The beam operated with 15kv and 15nA and a beam

diameter of 10 [micro]m. 1868. b.d. Zeolites

of the North Mountain Basalt, Bay of Fundy – Minas Basin region, Nova

Scotia. They also described irregularities in the top of one basalt flow

developed before the subsequent flow was deposited that they ascribed to

faulting during extrusion of the basalt succession.


Stellerite to “heulandite”

Chemical differences between zeolites of the North Shore and Kings

County may also result from different chemistry of crystallizing

solutions. 40, pp. The overall order of crystallization from

earliest to latest is: chabazite to quartz + stilbite to calcite.

The purpose of this paper is: 1) to accurately identify zeolite

minerals of the North Shore of the Minas Basin using up-to-date

analytical techniques, thus establishing both their stratigraphic and

regional distribution; 2) to determine the order of crystallization of

zeolite minerals in each area and hence the events of zeolite formation;

3) to examine the chemical mineralogy of zeolite minerals of

representative samples and in particular zeolite species from these

areas with no published chemical analyses; 4) to establish the

differences in chemistry of some identified zeolite species between the

North Shore and the Arlington Quarry (a representative area of the type

North Mountain basalt in Kings County) (Fig. Wasson Bluff and Cape d’Or display

the largest variety of zeolite minerals, whereas the other localities

have only two to five zeolite minerals. Les zeolites dans let roches sedimentaires de

la Formation de McCoy Brook se limitent a quelques zones distinctes,

dont des fiilles importantes. b.d.

Mg 0.87 b.d. The first zeolite minerals to

crystallize in Kings County samples are rich in Ca (i.e.

“heulandite”) and we infer that Na was not accommodated in the

crystal structure of the crystallizing zeolites because fluid

temperature was too high. 2b) are similar, principally with celadonite and silica minerals

in amygdales. b.d.

[Na.sub.2]O 13.27 13.61 13.41 13.42

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Tetranatrolite, stellerite, barrerite,

scolecite, and wairakite have also been identified. 105 50 65 57

Locality CapeSharp Partridge Is. 4d).

Thomsonite from Arlington Quarry is generally white, dull, and

massive with Si/Al average of 1.10 (Fig. 125 126 128 130

Locality Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.23 57.87 58.30 57.83

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.40 15.90 16.82 16.84

CaO 6.29 6.55 7.42 6.38

[Na.sub.2]O 1.55 2.01 0.83 0.93

[K.sub.2]O 0.68 0.62 0.42 0.75



Total 82.15 82.95 83.79 82.73

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. They are “heulandite” (heulandite sensu

stricto and clinoptilolite), chabazite, analcime, stilbite, barrerite,

epistilbite, gmelinite, laumontite, natrolite, mesolite, scolecite,

stellerite, tetranatrolite, thomsonite, and wairakite. The following physical properties were found to

be most useful for zeolite mineral identification in the field. Some authors have

compared the zeolite assemblages to those resulting from burial

metamorphism in Iceland (Adams 1980), but more recent work on North

Mountain shows them to result from hydrothermal circulation (De Wet and

Hubert 1989; Pe-Piper 2000). 96 96 96 96

Si 33.95 34.57 35.53 34.03

Al 12.81 13.02 13.29 13.48

Ca 5.74 4.94 5.32 5.48

Na 5.48 4.12 2.89 3.84

K 0.81 0.66 0.50 0.65

Si/Al 2.65 2.66 2.60 2.52

E% -27.9 -11.2 -5.3 -12.7

Mineral Wairakite Chabazite

Sample Z675 Z667

Analysis No. Most basalt in the area is massive, but

considerable amounts are amygdaloidal. The Si/Al ratios of epistilbite from both areas are

similar, but epistilbite from the North Shore has lower Al and Ca and

higher Na. b.d.



Total 83.05 91.57 92.94 92.47 92.76

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. Olsen and P.J.W.

Gore, Field trip guidebook T351, 28th Geological Congress, pp. 0.2

Total 81.08 81.99 80.65 80.35

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 283-296.

Although “heulandite” occurrences were not suggested in

earlier studies, this zeolite is abundant in the samples examined.

Stilbite is common and associated minerals are quartz and calcite. 0.11

Si/Al 2.89 3.13 3.19 3.2

E% -2.1 -2.2 -2.1 2.7

Mineral Epistilbite Stilbite

Sample Z33 Z25 Z230

Analysis No. b.d.

Si/Al 3.60 1.57 1.57 1.60 1.58

E% -7.1 1.7 1.1 0.3 -2.5

Mineral Natrolite Tetranatrolite

Sample Z270 Z310 Z270

Analysis No. “Heulandite”, mesolite, stilbite,

thomsonite, natrolite, tetranatrolite, and epistilbite have been

analysed from both the North Shore and Arlington Quarry and can

therefore be compared.

A Ia Wasson Bluff, les coulees basaltiques du basalte du North

Mountain et les sediments silicoclastiques sus-jacents de la Formation

de McCoy Brook sont bus demembres par le mouvement synchrone exerce sur

la faille laterale gauche voisine de Porrapique. Elsewhere

on North Mountain, mordenite, natrolite, and laumontite have been

confirmed. b.d. 1.84 0.31

Si/Al 2.64 2.73 3.09 3.08

E% -0.2 2 7.8 -5.7

Mineral Epistilbite

Sample Z21

Analysis No

Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. D. arsenal.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years.

A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. According to Sen. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine.

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. In the modern U.S. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. All rights reserved.

“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.

By Jarrett Murphy

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.

Copyright 2003 CBS. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. wants to stop proliferation.

But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. Nelson.

Last year, the U.S. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test

The Impending Dangers of Nuclear War: America’s W88 Thermonuclear Warhead is 30 Times a Hiroshima Bomb | Global Research

They have had 69 years to get rid of their nuclear weapons while all that the citizens of the world hear from them are windy speeches around purported good intentions which never come to fruition. She concluded ‘It is time to change the status quo. The huge burgeoning of awareness in the citizens of the world is bearing fruit.

The powerful summary statement of the conference Chair pointed out that the broad participation of states and civil society reflected the burgeoning awareness that this issue is of the utmost importance to all the peoples of the world. How can we ever be sure that some deranged psychopath will not gain power in one of the nuclear states and deceive him/herself into believing that it is in their best interests to make a first strike? How can we ever be sure that some terrorist organisations will not hack into the electronic control systems and carry out the launching themselves? And we now know that even a small nuclear exchange could be a lethal threat to everyone on the planet. 8.    http://www.icanw.org/campaign-news/ican-closing-statement-to-the-second-conference-on-the-humanitarian-impact-of-nuclear-weapons/

File:W-88 warhead detail.png

The US government has 5 nuclear submarines on patrol at all times carrying 1000 times the destructive power of the Hiroshima bomb3. This is enough to wipe out the entire population of the planet many times over together with all other life forms. Frozen in a realm of outdated thinking which was always inhuman; their leaders frightened and paranoid and prepared to put the survival of humanity in jeopardy simply in order to feel important and powerful as they strut, uncomprehending, on the world stage.

5.    http://wagingpeace.org/articles/db_article.php?article_id=417

1.     http://www.scribd.com/doc/168600341/Bulletin-of-the-Atomic-Scientists-2013

4.      http://www.good.is/post/what-the-volcano-can-teach-us-about-nuclear-war/

Is this sane? Has the human race lost its senses? A single United States thermonuclear warhead, designated W88, has an estimated ‘yield’ of 475 kilotons2.  The ‘yield’ is the destructive power expressed in tons of TNT equivalent.

The US, the UK, Russia, China and France are rebuilding or upgrading their arsenals of nuclear weapons. And rather than focus on the numbers and ‘yields’ of the weapons it was wisely decided to concentrate on the effects on humanity of the use of nuclear weapons. Getting rid of them will take courageous leadership by states but such leadership will have the support of civil society. Humanity owes a great debt to Norway for this initiative.

7.    http://www.sre.gob.mx/en/images/stories/cih/ci.pdf

The International Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)8 is a coalition of over 350 organisations in 90 countries. They are the very antithesis of humanity5…’


The Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in Nayarit, Mexico, on 13 and 14 February 2014. But these 9 are outnumbered by 20 to one.

2.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W88

A single W88 could completely destroy London, Moscow or New York. The existence of nuclear weapons means they could be used by accident, by misunderstanding or by malicious intent. The other weapons of mass destruction have already been banned.

Their brief and nightmarish ascendancy is over. The world has moved on.

It is ironic that the worst offenders are the five permanent members of the ‘Security’ Council of the United Nations. Each bomb on a major city would kill millions of people; women, children, babies, old people, everyone. The nuclear states have become a sorry sight. As awareness of the humanitarian impact grows hearts and minds are being changed worldwide.

The situation is being rendered even more dangerous by the US and Russia who keep 1,800 weapons on high alert atop long-range ballistic missiles that are ready to launch 5 to 15 minutes after receiving an order!

And finally there is hope. Our belief is that this process should comprise a specific timeframe, the definition of the most appropriate fora, and a clear and substantive framework, making the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons the essence of disarmament efforts. We believe this is the path to achieve a world without nuclear weapons’. India and Pakistan sent observers.

3.     http://www.psr.org/chapters/washington/energy-and-peace/trident.html

The only remedy is an enforced world ban on the existence of nuclear weapons. The security of the non-nuclear states is threatened by the irresponsible and self-focused behaviour of the 9 others. The other four nuclear states(Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea) too are ‘improving’ their arsenals. The movement for an international ban is unstoppable.

Mexico offered to host a follow-up meeting to this conference and such is the vital importance of this approach that other states declared their intention to organise additional events on this subject.

6.    http://thebulletin.org/mexico-preview-humanitarian-approach-disarmament

She went on to explain that the use against cities of less than one percent of existing weapons would put billions of lives in jeopardy and have a long lasting detrimental  effect on both the planet’s climate and agriculture. The non-nuclear majority which do not feel the need for a lethal ‘security’ crutch have decided to take the initiative. It is the turn of the last and most destructive of them all.. And the fallout would have global consequences that would kill millions of people, disrupt climate patterns, and threaten global agricultural collapse4.

The risks of ‘accidental, mistaken, unauthorised or intentional use is growing significantly due to more countries holding weapons on higher levels of combat readiness’. The suffering would be indescribable and for many would go on for months and years before death. By focusing attention on the humanitarian consequences of their use they are well on their way to doing so.

 Furthermore decent people round the globe know that the existence of nuclear weapons is a brooding evil which undermines the moral integrity of humankind. It is not easy to face up to the implications of these arsenals especially if you bear the primary responsibility. Ray Acheson, in her closing statement on behalf of ICAN to the Second Conference included the words ‘The claim by some states that they continue to need these weapons to deter their adversaries has been exposed by the evidence presented at this conference and in Oslo as a reckless and unsanctionable gamble with our future’.

After hearing presentations from a wide range of experts on the various effects of nuclear weapon detonations the conference concluded that “it is unlikely that any state or international body could address the immediate humanitarian emergency caused by a nuclear weapon detonation in an adequate manner and provide sufficient assistance to those affected.” Conference members also agreed that the effects of a nuclear weapon detonation will not be constrained by national borders but will produce significant negative regional and global effects6.

This ground-breaking and historic conference was attended by delegates from 127 countries and 70 nongovernmental organizations. It is time to take action 7.’

 So with these and other major forces at work there is an unstoppable movement towards banning these Armageddon machines. It is time we ban nuclear weapons.

The first International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in 2013. The next logical development, as the nuclear states continue to deny their obligations to shed their arsenals, is for the non-nuclear states to proceed independently to enact a treaty outlawing these weapons internationally. What sort of people would do such a thing? What kind of human would threaten such an atrocity?  

The W88 is over 30 times more destructive than the bomb which wiped out Hiroshima. It included delegations representing 146 States, the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement and civil society organizations.

The Third Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Austria later this year.

Citizens of the world have simultaneously become aware that the nuclear states do not intend to get rid of their nuclear weapons and that their existence imposes a permanent and intolerable threat to us all. These weapons must be outlawed; ‘in the past, weapons have been eliminated after they have been outlawed. This is being done at a time when many citizens are suffering from inadequate defences against flooding and when the social services are being radically cut back. 

The nine nuclear states have over 10,000 nuclear weapons in their stockpiles1. In a limited nuclear war between India and Pakistan 20 million people would die from the nuclear blasts, fires, and radioactive fallout. She insisted that we must act to get rid of them or they will be used by accident, misunderstanding or malicious intent. He called for a ‘legally binding instrument’ and declared that the, ‘time has come to initiate a diplomatic process conducive to this goal. As the great moral leader Desmond Tutu wrote “Nuclear weapons are an obscenity. Due to ‘…proliferation, the vulnerability of nuclear command and control networks to cyber-attacks and to human error and potential access to nuclear weapons by non-state actors, in particularly terrorist groups’ the risks are ‘growing globally’.

There are 9 nuclear states and there are 183 non-nuclear states. The nuclear states were invited but declined to attend. No emergency services could begin to cope There would be no relief. Is it possible to imagine the degree of paranoia represented by such a standing threat? The UK government has started to spend one hundred billion pounds on rebuilding its Trident fleet of nuclear submarines, each one with the capacity to incinerate over 40 million people. As we discuss the statistics and strategies of ‘nuclear arsenals’ and ‘nuclear deterrence’ it can be hard to keep in mind the reality underlying the abstract discussions

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Most Notorious Biker Gangs in the World

However, the story was blown out of proportion by the media, notably by Life magazine, which carried out a photograph of a wasted man sitting on a Harley Davidson motorcycle, while holding a beer in each hand. The Finks are accused of threatening businessmen and demanding extortion from them. The arrested members also took the man to his home to rob him of his property.

In 2009, three members of the Vagos MC were arrested on charges of gang-raping a woman in San Jose, California.


Chapters: 40+ in 5 countries

Membership: 600

Motto: We Give What We Get.

Although most of the outlaw motorcycle gangs around the world originated in America and then spread out, The Finks are one of the ‘indigenous’ outlaw motorcycle clubs. During the raids, the police seized drugs valued at $3 million in the international market.

In 2007, a full-time member of Hells Angels MC shot three people, including his girlfriend, in Melbourne. It is widely believed that Sons of Silence are allied with the Hells Angels, because of which, they are often engaged in turf wars with other outlaw motorcycle clubs.

Notorious Acts

In 1999, 37 members of the club were arrested in Denver on charges of drug trafficking and possessing illegal weapons.

In 2001, six members of the gang were arrested by the ATF on charges of drug trafficking and illegal arms possession.

Established: 1935

Chapters: 110

Membership: 1500 – 1800

Motto: God Forgives, Outlaws Don’t

Rock ‘n’ MurderIn 1969, a free rock concert was held at Altamont Speedway, California. While some appreciate the freedom and the adrenaline rush that one experiences on a motorcycle ride, others are of the opinion that bikers engage in rabble-rousing, and promote an alternate lifestyle, devious to the norms of the society. Like other 1%er motorcycle gangs, the club is involved in drug trafficking, extortion, money laundering, and prostitution.

Notorious Acts

A former international president of the Outlaws MC was given two life sentences in 1999 for committing three murders. According to estimates, currently, the club has more than 100 chapters worldwide, with an estimated 2000 to 3000 members. This photograph and the overall media reports created a perception among the people of America that motorcyclists were troublemakers and sociopaths. Although a lot of people believe that Oakland chapter of the Hells Angels is the club’s mother chapter, the official website denies the claim and states that after forming the club in Fontana, a lot of club members moved to Oakland. These bikers are affiliated to numerous clubs, and are collectively known as Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs (OMC). Chambers was a marine vet who had served in Vietnam. Before we go ahead and introduce you to some of the most dreaded biker gangs around the world, we would like to revisit history to understand their origin.

Biker Clubs: The Origin

After the end of World War II, a lot of war veterans returned home and tried to settle into their new civilian lives. The outlaws accepted the “1%” tag, and used it proudly with their club patches to associate themselves with everything that the society considered devious. These gangs have gained notoriety all around the world for their antics, but due to the constant media attention, they have also managed to achieve a cult status among some bike aficionados. However, the benign nature of motorcycling took a beating in the Hollister riot of 1947.

Hollister Riot

Hollister, an agricultural town in California, hosted an annual bike rally, sanctioned by the AMA. Majority of these biker clubs are law-abiding and are registered with the biggest motorcycling organization — American Motorcyclist Association (AMA). 53 of the arrested members were convicted for crimes, such as drug trafficking and murder conspiracy.

In 2008, a Mongol member surrendered himself after committing the murder of the president of the San Francisco chapter of the Hells Angels.

A former international president of the Mongols MC was arrested along with 37 other members (of the Mongols MC) for racketeering in 2008. It is believed that Bandidos MC has an association with Outlaws Motorcycle Club, and they help each other out in their criminal activities.

Notorious Acts

A drug war between Bandidos and Hells Angels that lasted from 1993 to 1997 resulted in the death of 11 members from both the clubs. As both the crowd and Hells Angels members were high on drugs and alcohol, altercations ensued, resulting in a Hells Angels member fatally stabbing a 18-year-old guy, who had reportedly drawn a gun.

Outlaws motorcycle club claims to be the oldest motorcycle club in the world. Hells Angels, one of the most notorious biker gangs in the world, was managing the security of the event, for which they were paid $500 worth of beer. They were also charged with offenses of drug trafficking, extortion, and possession of illegal weapons.

The Hells Angels is arguably the most well-known motorcycle club in the world. The Outlaws have been engaged in a turf war with Hells Angels. Most of the members of the gang are of Hispanic origin. Live Mongol, Die Mongol!

Bandidos MC was founded by Donald Eugene Chambers in San Leon, Texas. The former president was sentenced to seven years in prison after he pleaded guilty to the charges. They were charged with offenses, such as drug trafficking, insurance frauds, and murder for hire.

A Highwaymen member was arrested in 2008 for charges related to drug trafficking. The club was founded in McCook, Illinois. Most of the motorcycle clubs are located, or have originated in the United States of America. The police arrested several of these drunk bikers for misdemeanor, but even the police noted that these men had done more harm to themselves than they did to the town. The gang is predominantly present in the eastern part of the US, although they have several international chapters. They had been living their lives on the sidelines, but now they saw an opportunity of hogging the public limelight by becoming a biker.

Established: 1954

Chapters: 10

Membership: 100 – 150

Motto: Highwaymen forever, forever Highwaymen

Pagan’s MC (or The Pagans) was formed by Lou Dobkins in the year 1959. These clubs were known for their nomadic and rebellious lifestyle, but there was rarely any news of their engagement in any form of illegal activity. As they had been at war for such a long time, the chores of daily life seemed monotonous to them. One person died, and the other two were seriously injured in the incident. After the bikers got high on alcohol, they stormed right into the city, doing wheelies, riding through restaurants, and littering the streets with broken beer bottles. The club has been the subject of numerous investigations by the law enforcement agencies, including the FBI. They were in search of the same level of camaraderie and togetherness, which war soldiers have for each other. Today, law enforcement agencies in every country consider these outlaw gangs to be actively involved in numerous illegal activities.. Four Detroit police officers were also arrested along with him on charges of corruption.

Established: 1967

Chapters: 40+

Membership: NA


Established: 1948

Chapters: Around 230 in 27 countries

Membership: 2000 – 3000


Established: 1966

Chapters: 20+

Membership: 250 – 300

Motto: donec mors non separat (until death separates us)

Vagos MC is one of the most notorious outlaw motorcycle clubs of America. It was later found that the killers were full members of Bandidos, and they had massacred the eight people as a part of an internal cleansing of the organization.

The President of the Sweden chapter of Bandidos MC was handed down a nine-year jail sentence in 2009, after he was found guilty of an attempt to murder of people, who had testified against him. The member was sentenced to death, but was later killed in a fight with another death-row inmate inside the prison.

In 2007, a member of Bucks County chapter of Warlocks was sentenced to five years in prison after being arrested for possession of drugs.

In 2008, the State Attorney General of Pennsylvania alleged that Warlocks was involved in manufacturing methamphetamine worth $9 million.

Highwaymen motorcycle club was formed in Detroit in 1954. While looking for a substitute to fill their lives, motorcycling emerged as one of the brightest options, and soon, numerous war vets were on the streets with their cruiser bikes and choppers. The man had allegedly killed a Hells Angels member in 2009, and the law enforcement agencies had come with a search warrant to arrest him.

In 2012, a raid on the Indiana chapter of the Outlaws MC led to the arrest of 42 members of the club. These clubs are in a state of constant war with each other, and many of their members have been arrested over serious crimes, such as drug trafficking, extortion, prostitution, and murder. It is believed that the feud between Outlaws and Hells Angels dates back to 1946, when Outlaws’ request for a Hells Angels charter was turned down by the latter. The club is active in Alabama, Tennessee, Indiana, and Kentucky. The club was formed in the spirit of motorcycling and adventure, but over a period of time, it engaged in criminal activities, like other 1%er biker gangs. The club was formed in Adelaide, Australia in 1969. Law enforcement agencies have found Bandidos to be involved in numerous criminal activities. Below the motorcycle lay innumerable empty beer bottles. The negative publicity surrounding the motorcyclists and the misconception about them, appealed to criminal-minded individuals. The club has been accused of numerous serious crimes, such as drug trafficking, extortion, and prostitution.

Notorious Acts

In 2006, a series of raids in Ontario, Canada led to the arrest of 15 Hells Angels members. Highwaymen MC was once a member of the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA), but in the early 1960s, it strayed away from the mainstream to become a 1%er biker gang.

Notorious Acts

In 2007, a major raid conducted by the FBI in Detroit led to the arrest of 40 members of the Highwaymen club. The Wild One (1953) starring Marlon Brando, which was based on the Hollister riot, further polarized the public opinion against the bikers. It is widely believed that Hells Angels’ “only whites can join” policy was the reason behind the formation of the Mongols MC; however, some observers are of the view that these stories are apocryphal, and that Mongols has had white members in the past. According to the official website of Hells Angels, the club was formed on March 17, 1948 in Fontana/San Bernardino area of California, US. The club is also known by the aliases — Mongol Nation and Mongol Brotherhood. They are known for their intense rivalry with the Hells Angels MC.

Notorious Acts

In 2005, The Pagans allegedly killed the vice president of the Philadelphia chapter of the Hells Angels on the Schuylkill Expressway.

In 2007, a member of the club was arrested in Maryland by a team of more than 60 officers from different law enforcement departments on charges of possessing illegal arms. He had killed two members of his own club and one from a rival gang.

In 2010, a member of the Outlaws MC was killed when he reportedly opened fire on a SWAT team from the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF). Four other Bandidos members were also convicted, but received shorter sentences for their involvement in the crime.

The Most Infamous Motorcycle Clubs

Established: 1966

Chapters: Around 200 in 16 countries

Membership: 2000 – 2500

Motto: We are the people our parents warned us about.

The Mongols MC was formed in Montebello, California in 1969. Investigation revealed that six of the eight dead bodies were of Bandidos club members. They are allegedly involved in numerous criminal activities, and the law enforcement agencies view it as a violent organization. Grub, as he is called by his fellow club mates, is an ex-naval serviceman and has served on the USS Shangri-La aircraft carrier. Mongols have been involved in various crimes ranging from drug trafficking, extortion, attempted murder, etc.

Notorious Acts

In 1998, William Queen, a law enforcement agent gained entry into Mongols, and over the course of three years, he collected sufficient evidence, which resulted in the arrest of 54 club members. They wanted to experience the thrill and excitement, which had become a part of their lives during the period of war. The club’s tryst with infamy started pretty early when Chambers was convicted for a murder in El Paso. After originating in Prince George’s County, Maryland, the club soon expanded to various states of the US. This led to the creation of numerous biking clubs, with members donning similar outfits to show loyalty to their respective clubs. Interestingly, he had earlier written a book, which was published by the well-known publishing house HarperCollins.

Sons of Silence are a 1%er motorcycle club, active in US since its formation in Colorado, in 1966. The sheer number of motorcyclists made it seem as if the whole town of Hollister was ‘overtaken’. The way they looked at it, civilian life was staid and unexciting.


Chapters: 50+ in 14 countries

Membership: 500 – 600

Motto: WHEN WE DO RIGHT NOBODY REMEMBERS, WHEN WE DO WRONG NOBODY FORGETS… The four-year period also saw 74 attempt-to-murder incidents.

In 2006, four vehicles with eight dead bodies were found in Shedden, Canada. It has a total membership of 300,000 and is actively involved in promoting motorcycling in the US.

There is a minuscule percentage of bikers, who don’t conform to the rules and regulations of AMA and have their own code of conduct. The police recovered 13 long rifles, seven handguns, and two explosive devices from the member.

In 2010, nineteen members were arrested in New York for allegedly conspiring to murder Hells Angels club members. It was formed in San Bernardino, California in the year 1965. This policy of extortion is known as Finks’ fines.

Notorious Acts

According to a report submitted by the South Australian Police Commissioner, between 1967 and 2008, Finks members were found guilty of 167 offenses.

In 2012, a Finks member was arrested for attempting to kill a Bandidos motorcycle member. He was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.

The sergeant at arms of the San Diego chapter of Hells Angels was sentenced to serve 21 years and 10 months in prison for drug trafficking charges in 2012.

Established: 1969

Chapters: NA

Membership: NA

Motto: Attitude Violence

Warlocks MC was formed by Tom Freeland in Florida in the year 1967. During its inception, it was made up of war veterans who were earlier associated with the club, Pissed Off Bastards of Bloomington (one of the clubs present at the Hollister riot). A motorcycle club found in 1967 in Pennsylvania, also goes by the name ‘Warlocks’, and both these gangs are known to be allies.

Notorious Acts

In 1995, a member of the Warlocks Pennsylvania shot dead a sergeant after being pulled over at a traffic stop. The club was initially known as “Psychos”, but conflict among the Hispanic members of the club resulted in the creation of Vagos. The rally had become a spectacle and a source of revenue for many locals. The club has been on the radar of ATF, because of its alleged involvement in several illegal activities.

Notorious Acts

In 2007, six members of the club were arrested after they beat up a fellow member who expressed his desire to leave the club. The charges that were leveled against the arrested members included money laundering and illegal gambling.

Established: 1959

Chapters: 40+

Membership: 350 – 400

Motto: NA

Motorcyclists around the world are met with awe and skepticism. The Finks expanded to Perth, when Troy Mercanti was expelled from Coffin Cheaters — another Perth-based motorcycle gang. He was also charged with causing injuries to a bystander and possessing arms illegally.

The 1%er Tag

Heckled by the media over the issue of motorcyclists engaging in hooliganism and criminal activities, AMA allegedly said that 99% of the bikers were law-abiding citizens, and it was the remaining 1%, which was bringing a bad name to motorcycling. It was initially known as McCook Outlaws Motorcycle Club. Currently, the club has chapters in 12 countries outside the US, and its membership is estimated to be anywhere between 2000 and 2500. Although members of the club affirm that their club exists to promote motorcycling, many observers believe that Bandidos was created because Chambers wanted to have a hold over the drug trafficking and prostitution business in Texas. These 1%er clubs spread to numerous states in America and around the world. Due to the increase in the number of motorcycle clubs after the World War II, Hollister witnessed the arrival of a large number of motorcyclists, which it could not accommodate. The activities of the club were restricted by the government in South Australia

Burnley fan’s DIY tour aims to tackle big four | Reuters

“(English team’s pre-season tours) tend to be very quick trips by like Liverpool, who were here one day and were a bit prima donnaish (they) kind of went and left where as these guys have mingled and talked to people. I think the team have done very well.”

“It is a small country but such a big market for football and we would like to get more claret and blue supporters in this part of the world,” a sharply-dressed Banaszkiewicz told Reuters.

So as the Premier League’s top clubs looked at North America, Australia, Africa or Asia for their usually lavish pre-season tours, Banaszkiewicz started organising a visit to south east Asia.

(Writing by Patrick Johnston in Singapore, Editing by Justin Palmer)

“I said (to the hairdresser) I am going to watch Burnley and they were like ‘oh yes 5-0 (referring to the midweek win over Home United) they are playing Singapore’ so slowly the message is coming across.”

“It has been a bit of an experience to be honest because we have never done anything like that before, it is normally done by agents so we have pretty much done a DIY job ourselves.”

The photo prompted Burnley to invite Banaszkiewicz to come to watch the 2-1 home defeat by eventual Premier League winners Chelsea at the end of January.

“We were hoping to play in Indonesia as well and Thailand because it was meant to be a bit of a bonding session for the players but we weren’t able to do that in the end because it was deemed a security risk so they decided to (just) come here.”

And Banaszkiewicz believes the key to building support in the region is for the club to show that modest side, which they demonstrated by attending coaching camps and meeting the locals.

“I always felt there were only three or four clubs that dominate south east Asia and this team (Burnley) has a rich tradition and has beaten some of those big clubs last season. Bars on a Saturday night are normally lined with fans in the red of Manchester United, Liverpool and Arsenal and the blue of Chelsea, eager to catch every minute of their matches.

But with Burnley’s surprise 1-0 win over Manchester United in last season’s Premier League and this trip to Singapore, the Burnley-born Banaszkiewicz said he had already noticed an increase in interest in the two-times English champions.

“We have all the world clocks because we deal with commodities and trading and we put a clock where our offices are, so Shanghai, Singapore, Dubai and I put one with Burnley on the wall,” a chuckling Banaszkiewicz said.

“At that time they were discussing their shirt sponsorship with Fun88, which is a Singapore based company, and I said they are absolutely mad about soccer out there (Singapore) so what about organising a tour?” Banaszkiewicz said.. This isn’t going to be a one-off.”

SINGAPORE Businessman John Banaszkiewicz was so fed up of the Premier League’s top four teams claiming all the support in south east Asia that he decided to sponsor his beloved Burnley a trip to Singapore to boost their appeal.

The story of how Burnley made it to the tiny south east Asian city state is an unlikely one which started with the clocks in the London office of Banaszkiewicz’s company earlier this year and demonstrated a warmth that the club should market.

But hundreds of the few thousand in attendance on a muggy Saturday night at the Jalan Besar Stadium came in Manchester United shirts, demonstrating the challenge ahead for Burnley and Banaszkiewicz.

The co-founder of Freight Investor Services LTD, who travels to Singapore bi-monthly for business, watched proudly as his English Championship (second division) club rounded off a successful tour with a 1-0 win over a Singapore select side.


With the prank providing some office laughs John B, as he is more commonly known in Burnley circles, decided to send a photo of the clocks to his then Premier League side.

Singaporeans are obsessed with the Premier League, and the top four especially

Gambling Blamed In Bank Rob Case

He says Hogan had been playing over the Internet for months to blow off steam, and that the hobby quickly became an addiction.

He was picked up at his frat house later Friday and charged with robbery.

“You have to think of how much he had going for him, class president, studying at Lehigh,” said Steve A. Gregory J. Hogan, is the pastor of First Baptist Church of Barberton in Barberton, Ohio, and has served as a city councilman in Seven Hills, Ohio.

The sophomore class president at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania — accused of robbing a bank — may have been trying to feed an intense gambling habit.

His lawyer says 19-year-old Greg Hogan had lost about $5,000 playing online poker. A preliminary hearing is scheduled for Jan. Authorities say he handed a note to a teller at a Wachovia Bank branch in Allentown, Pennsylvania on Friday, saying he had a gun and wanted money. “You have to question his reasoning, obviously. Hogan is the son of a Baptist minister.

When a student is charged with a crime, the university’s Office of Student Conduct, a disciplinary committee of teachers, staff and students, decides what action to take regarding the student’s status at the school, said Dina Silver, a school spokeswoman. 12, 2005, was allegedly robbed Friday Dec. 31.

“I believe once all the facts are reviewed and uncovered, the conclusion will be reached that he (Wallen) had in fact nothing to do with the crimes with which the other individual is charged,” Longenbach said.

One of his frat brothers, Patrick Thornton, described Hogan as “very energetic,” the sort of student who would cheer on the college football team wearing body paint.. The big question is why.”

“I didn’t believe it when I first heard it,” Kathryn Susman, an 18-year-old engineering student from Hereford, Maryland, said Monday.

His lawyer says Hogan is “one of the nicest kids” he’s ever met. He says, “His gambling addiction led him to make a terrible, terrible mistake.”

A Wachovia Bank branch in Allentown, Pa. He was released Saturday after posting $100,000 bond, a prison spokesman said. seen Monday Dec. Juisti, 19, a sophomore civil engineering student from Upper Darby. 9, 2005, by Lehigh University sophomore class president Greg Hogan.


The university’s student Senate president, Kip Wallen, drove Hogan to the bank, but had no idea that Hogan allegedly intended to rob it, said Wallen’s lawyer, Karl Longenbach. His father, the Rev. Wallen has not been charged.

Police told The Morning Call of Allentown that Hogan admitted robbing the bank. They say he got away with $2,871.

“It’s by far the most interesting story we’ve ever encountered here,” added Thornton, editor of The Brown and White, the student newspaper.

Hogan, the son of a Baptist minister, was picked up at his social fraternity house later that evening and charged with robbery, theft by unlawful taking and receiving stolen property.

© 2005 The Associated Press. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. Sanctions can range from a warning to expulsion.

Hogan is also a cellist in the university’s orchestra.

As Lehigh University students prepared for final exams this week, they found themselves grappling with the news that the sophomore class president had been arrested for allegedly robbing a bank.

Hogan graduated in 2004 from the University School, an upscale private school in suburban Cleveland. All Rights Reserved

AT&T Debuts Exclusive Xperia(TM) TL, Sony’s Best in Mobile Camera Technology, HD Viewing and NFC Connectivity.

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the TV screen, Xperia TL connects through MHL or wirelessly through


About ATT

To make enjoying content across devices even easier, Xperia TL

supports ‘One-touch’ connectivity through NFC. Plus, both the rear and

front-facing cameras deliver HD recording capabilities for vivid video

capture on the go.

Xperia TL gives you the ultimate in HD with a superb 4.6-inch HD

display (1080 x 720), powered by the Mobile BRAVIA Engine for razor

sharp clarity and brilliance. To

get started with experiencing NFC, Xperia TL comes with one Xperia

SmartTag in box. All other

trademarks or registered trademarks are property of their respective


* Improved layout of photo and video folders, both in device and


* 4.6″ HD Reality Display powered by the Mobile BRAVIA


* MHL connectivity for viewing content on a big screen without the

need for a charger

* Latest generation 1.5GHz dual core processor for improved battery

efficiency and fast graphics performance

* Android version 4.0.4 (Ice Cream Sandwich). 4G speeds delivered

by LTE, or HSPA+ with enhanced backhaul, where available. Kit

contents and colour options may differ from market to market. All other marks

contained herein are the property of their respective owners.

** Xperia arc S and Xperia arc are winners of the EISA (European

Imaging and Sound Association) award for European Camera Phone

2011-2012. All rights reserved. 3) Actual

size of screen is approximately 4.55″. All rights reserved.

***4G speeds not available everywhere. Deployment


Xperia TL Will be Featured in the Upcoming James Bond Cinema Release


Photo enthusiasts will delight in the impressive images taken with

Xperia TL’s 13-megapixel primary camera that brings even the

smallest of details to life. Camera capabilities are

accurate as the date of this release.

* Easy connectivity with ‘One-touch’ function enabled by


Key Specs for Xperia TL:

Additional information about ATT Inc. Mobile

broadband not available in all areas. under the ATT brand

and not by ATT Inc. Learn more at att.com/network. This high resolution camera captures

quality images swiftly with its quick launch feature, going from standby

mode (sleep) to first shot in just 1.5 seconds,[sup.1] making sure

life’s unexpected moments are not missed. Or follow our news on Twitter at


* 13MP quick launch-fast capture camera that goes from sleep to snap

in just over a second

COPYRIGHT 2012 PR Newswire Association LLC

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

*ATT products and services are provided or offered by

subsidiaries and affiliates of ATT Inc. Legal

(c) 2012 ATT Intellectual Property. ATT has two 4G networks

that work together for customers, LTE and HSPA+ with enhanced backhaul.

That means ATT customers are able to enjoy a widespread, ultra-fast

and consistent 4G experience on their compatible device as they move in

and out of LTE areas. The full

range of accessories may not be available in every market. Xperia arc is also the winner of the prestigious red dot

Product Design Award 2011. This 4G LTE smartphone takes connected entertainment to the next

level with new Sony media applications.

* Full 1080p HD video recording and a 720p HD front camera for the

highest quality content


. This ATT news release and other

announcements are available at http://www.att.com/newsroom and as part

of an RSS feed at www.att.com/rss . Using near field communication technology, SmartTags

let you store device preferences for a variety of locations and

situations – like opening and controlling volume on the music player if

you head out for a run, turning on GPS and Bluetooth in the car or

turning on your alarm and silencing your ringer at night.

Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. Now, you can

conveniently and instantaneously enjoy your music and photos across an

array of NFC enabled devices by simply touching one to another to

establish a wireless connection without a cumbersome pairing process. and the products and

services provided by ATT subsidiaries and affiliates is available

at http://www.att.com . Android (TM) is a trademark of Google Inc. With other carriers, when you travel outside of

their LTE coverage area, you may be on a much slower 3G network.

* Geo-mapping in satellite and traditional map views

Sony “make.believe” and Bravia are trademarks or

registered trademarks of Sony Corporation. Upgradable to Android

version 4.1 (Jelly Bean) following launch.

1) Facts and features may vary depending on local variant. “PlayStation is a

registered trademark or a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.

Xperia is a trademark or registered trademark of Sony Mobile

Communications AB.

ATT customers have access to the nation’s largest 4G

network***, covering 275 million people. Sony is the trademark or

registered trademark of Sony Corporation. Xperia arc was announced at CES in January

2011 followed up by the announcement of Xperia arc S announced at IFA


Xperia TL includes three preloaded Sony media applications, Walkman,

Movies, and Album, introducing a consistent user interface across Sony