Extractable iron and aluminium predict the P sorption capacity of Thai soils.

Soil Science

Society of America Journal 54, 1298-1304.

. Soil Science Society of America

Proceedings 35, 33-38.


Syers JK, Browman MG, Smillie GW, Corey RB (1973) Phosphate

sorption by soils evaluated by the Langmuir adsorption equation. In Thai soils, kaolin and sesquioxides are abundant constituents and are especially abundant

in upland soils in the north-east, lower north, and peninsular south,

covering about 47% of the total area of the country (Suddhiprakarn et

al. 2). Reactions of soil with applied P depend to a large extent on

mineralogy and texture (Uehara and Gillman 1981). 1987). Norrish and Taylor (1961) concluded that

DCB-extractable Fe and Al in Australian soils originated from Fe oxides,

which in their research was mostly goethite.

The P sorption data fitted to the Langmuir (plotted c v. Klong Chak (Kc) SGCL 3.2

11. Chumphon (Cp) Sawee district, Chumphon 10[degrees]15’59″

10. 1997).

Holford ICR, Wedderburn RWM, Mattingly GEG (1974) A Langmuir

two-surface equation as a model for phosphate adsorption by soils.

Journal of Soil Science 25, 242-255.

These soils are highly weathered, nutrient-depleted, and infertile so that P inputs are needed to sustain crop yields (Greenland 1981).

Phosphorus sorption by most tropical soils is usually attributed to

kaolin and oxides of iron and aluminium although Al-OM complexes can

play a major role in some acid soils (Singh and Gilkes 1992). 1. 1993; Agbenin 2003) but this association has not

been demonstrated for Thai soils.

Phosphate sorption coefficients in relation to soil properties

Uehara G, Gillman GP (1981) ‘The mineralogy, chemistry, and

physics of tropical soils with variable charge clays.’ (Westview

Press: Boulder, CO)



x = a[x.sub.m]c/(1 + ac)

There were no significant relationships between Langmuir Xm or

Freundlich b and either soil pH or OM (Table 2). Sadao (Sd) C 0.7

4. 7).

Particle size distribution in soils was determined by the pipette method (Kilmer and Alexander 1949; Day 1965). The energy of P sorption (Langmuir

coefficient a and Freundlich b) is not closely related to any soil

property. Klong Thom (Km) 99[degrees]17’28″ 2-3 Palm

3. The Freundlich k coefficient

for subsoils (median 288 [micro]g/g) is generally higher than for

surface soils (median 112 [micro]g/g). The lack of a close relationship

possibly reflects the diverse range of surfaces at which sorption occurs

and the diverse processes (energies) that are involved on these surfaces

and at different equilibrium solution P concentrations. (Ed. Yasothon (Yt) 103[degrees]0’43″ 2-3 Mixed deciduous


8. 1987; Singh and Gilkes

1991 ; Sanyal et al. Chumphon (Cp) 99[degrees]3’47″ 3-4 Coconut

10. Chiang Khong (Cg) Doi Saket district, 18[degrees]53’42″

Chiang Mai

Soil series Longitude Slope Land use



1. Chiang Khong (Cg) 99[degrees]13’15″ 2-3 Mixed deciduous

Soil series Textural Avail. Pak Chong (Pc) C 24.7

12. Soil Science Society of

America Journal 67, 589-595.

Borggaard OK (1983) The influence of iron oxides on phosphate

adsorption by soil. The highest values of

[Fe.sub.d] for Thai soils are for soils developed on basalt (range 26-74

g/kg, median 48 g/kg) followed by soils on shale/limestone (10-47 g/kg,

19 g/kg), sandstone (4-36 g/kg, 8 g/kg), and granite (4-16 g/kg, 7


Kilmer VJ, Alexander LT (1949) Method of making mechanical analysis

of soils. The Freundlich

k value is also closely related to SSA (r = 0.86). Extraction of soils with

DCB and oxalate is considered to be reasonably specific for crystalline

Fe ([Fe.sub.d]) and amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe ([Fe.sub.o]),

respectively, but these extractants may not be as specific for

corresponding Al compounds (McKeague et al. P sorption

capacity is very closely related to dithionite- and oxalate-extractable

Al and surface area; therefore, [Al.sub.d] or [Al.sub.o] could be used

as a routine soil test for predicting P sorption as a component of land

capability evaluation practice. In

‘Proceedings of a Scientific Workshop on Diffuse Pollution in

Subtropical and Tropical Developing Countries and Its Abatement’.

Bangkok, Thailand. FE Khasawneh) pp. Yasothon (Yt) LS 2.0


8. Thai Muang (Tim) 98[degrees]20’14″ 5-6 Para rubber

15. Soil Science 68, 15-24.

Anjos LH, Fernandes MR, Pereira MG, Franzmeir DP (1998) Landscape

and pedogenesis of an Oxisol-Inceptisol-Ultisol sequence in Southern

Brazil. Australian Journal of

Agricultural Research 18, 601-612. Surin (Su) Khonburi district, 14[degrees]29’34″

Nakhon Ratchasima

20. In

‘Methods of soil analysis. Phosphate sorbed was calculated from the

difference between P added and P in the equilibrium solution.

Laboratory analyses

Greenland DJ (1981) ‘Characterization of soils, in relation to

their classification of soils, in relation to their classification and

management for crop production: examples from some areas of the humid

tropics.’ (Clarendon Press: New York)

The Freundlich k coefficient, which is a measure of reactive

surface area (abundance of sorption sites) (Singh and Gilkes 1991;

Burkitt et al. CA Black) pp. The pH(KCl) values were lower (range 3.3

5.6, median 3.8) than those measured in water, indicating that the clay

minerals in the soils have a negative charge. Wiriyakitnateekul (A,B), A. Pathiu (Ptu) C 6.7


14. Although SSA provides

an excellent prediction of [x.sub.m] for Thai soils, the SSA procedure

is expensive and slow so it is preferable to predict P sorption maximum

from [Al.sub.d].


Barrow NJ (1978) The description of phosphate adsorption curves.

Journal of Soil Science 29, 447-462.

Siradz SA (1985) Distribution, properties and phosphorus

requirements of soils of the Cobiac valley, Darling Range Western

Australia. Extractable

Al may be present in the structure of iron oxides, in kaolin, or other

clay minerals and Al-OM complexes. But as 73%

of the variation in P sorption maximum can be explained by Aid alone

incorporation of more variables (and costly laboratory analyses) is not


Phosphorus sorption studies

Dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extractable Fe and Al

([Fe.sub.d] and [Al.sub.d]) were determined following the procedure of

Mehra and Jackson (1960). This is consistent with the findings of

Siradz (2000) for Indonesian red soils. Most of these

values were 0.1, which indicates that crystalline iron oxides are

dominant for these soils (Fitzpatrick and Schwertmann 1982). Physical and mineralogical

methods’. Pak Chong (Pc) Pak Chong, Nakhon 14[degrees]37’47″


12. The relationship between [x.sub.m] and [Al.sub.o] was

slightly improved, with [R.sup.2] increasing from 0.62 to 0.64 when the

data of the Tha Mai soil series, which are outliers, were excluded.

Conversely, [R.sup.2] for the relationship of [x.sub.m] with [Fe.sub.o]

decreased from 0.57 to 0.43. 2002), ranged from 27 to 1364 [micro]g/g, with a median

of 220 [micro]g/g, thus resembling Western Australian soils (k, range

1-1681 [micro]g/g) (Singh and Gilkes 1991) and Indonesian red soils (k,

range 388-1569 [micro]g/g) (Siradz 2000). Soil

Science Society of America Proceedings 37, 358-363.

Norrish K, Taylor RM (1961) The isomorphous replacement of iron by

aluminium in soil goethite. This indicates that the iron oxides in

the soils developed on basalt have a high degree of crystallinity

compared with the other soils.

The Freundlich equation is as follows (Barrow 1978):

The Langmuir adsorption coefficient, a, ranged from 0.5 to 15.0

mL/[micro]g, with a median of 3.6 mL/[micro]g. Hang Chat (Hc) 99[degrees]17’55″ 3 Tamarind


18. Krabi (Kbi) SCL 0.7

9. Ammonium oxalate extraction in the dark was

used to estimate non-crystalline and poorly crystalline Fe and Al

compounds ([Fe.sub.o] and [Al.sub.o]) (Rayment and Higginson 1992).

Langmuir [x.sub.m] and Freundlich k, which are both measures of

maximum P sorption capacity, were closely and positively related to

[Fe.sub.d], [Fe.sub.o], [Al.sub.d], [Al.sub.o], clay percentage, and SSA

(Table 2). 1987). Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 24, 420-421.

Barrow (1978) has shown that previously sorbed P should be taken

into account in P-fertilised soils when fitting equations to sorption

data for freshly added P. Stepwise correlation equations for predicting P sorption

maximum ([x.sub.m]) from some soil properties for Thai soils (n = 42)

Step Equation [R.sup.2]

1 109.19 + 0.86% [Al.sub.d] 0.73

2 45.33 + 0.58% [Al.sub.d] + 0.40% [Al.sub.o] 0.81

3 45.45 + 0.74% [Al.sub.d] + 0.38% 0.82

[Al.sub.o] -0.17% [Fe.sub.o]

4 40.35 + 0.63% [Al.sub.d] + 0.41% [Al.sub.o] 0.83

-0.20% [Fe.sub.o] + 0.13% [Fe.sub.d]

(B) Present address: Office of Science for Land Development, Land

Development Department, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Phosphorus sorption coefficients

Beauchemin S, Samard RR (2000) Phosphorus status of intensively

cropped soils of the St. J. Communications in Soil Science and

Plant Analysis 30, 1013-1024.

Pena F, Torrent J (1984) Relationships between phosphate sorption

and iron oxides in Alfisols from a river terrace sequence of

Mediterranean Spain. Part 1. The lowest

median value of [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] for Thai soils is for soils

developed on basalt (median [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.06), increasing in

the sequence sandstone ([Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.09) granite

([Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.10) shale/limestone

([Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] = 0.12). Field information for soils used in this publication

LS, Loamy sand; SL, sandy loam; SC, sandy clay; SCL, sandy clay loam;

SiL, silt loam; C, clay; CL, clay loam; VG, very gravelly, SG, slightly

gravelly; Co, coarse

Soil series Location Latitude


1. (ASA/SSSA: Madison, WI)

Results and discussion

Suddhiprakarn A, Kheoruenromne I, Sindhusen P, Yoothong K (1985)

Clay minerals and iron oxides of selected red and yellow soils in

north-east plateau and south coast, Thailand. Sawi (Sw) Khiri Ratthanikhom 9[degrees]1’15″

district, Suratthani

7. The values of [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] for the Thai

soils ranged from 0.01 to 0.28, with a median of 0.09. Australian Journal of

Soil Research 40, 497-513.


Poudal DD, West LT (1999) Soil development and fertility

characteristics of a volcanic slope in Mindanao, the Philippines. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 35,


Udo EJ, Uzu FO (1972) Characteristics of phosphate adsorption by

some Nigerian soils. Kohong (Kh) 100[degrees]25’18″ 2-5 Para rubber

2. The [Fe.sub.o] values for the Thai

soils were similar to those for Indonesian red soils (0.4-12.4 g/kg)

(Siradz 2000) and quite similar to values for Oxisols from southern

Brazil (median 2.5 g/kg) (Anjos et al. Applied Clay Science 11, 357-371. Soil pH was determined for

a 1:1 soil:solution ratio using both distilled water and 1 M KCl

(Natural Resources Conservation Service 1996) and organic carbon by

Walkley-Black titration (Walkley and Black 1934). Chalong (Chl) 99[degrees]18’47″ 2-3 Para rubber

16. The pH(water) values ranged from 3.9

to 6.3 with a median of 4.7. 1985; Yoshinaga et al. 6. Geoderma 27, 335 347. Beauchemin and Samard (2000)

considered that the greater P sorption capacity of subsoils is due to

their greater clay content. 8,

demonstrating the strength of these relationships and that there is no

systematic deviation of data for any parent material from the regression

lines. Ao Luk (Ak) 98[degrees]55’51″ 5 Fruit trees

13. P

class (mg/kg)


1. Average [x.sub.m] values follow the sequences

basalt [approximately equal to] shale/limestone granite


Mosugu ME, Chude VO, Esu IE, Parmwang TK, Malgwi WB (1999) Contents

and profile distribution of three forms of free iron oxides in three

Ultisols and an Alfisol in Nigeria. Pak Chong (Pc) 101[degrees]17’38″ 2-3 Custard apple

12. 1973; Holford et al. Site information, soil

classification, and interpreted parent materials are given in Table 1.

The soil samples were air-dried, crushed using a ceramic mortar and

pestle, and then passed through a 2-mm stainless steel sieve.

Sjarif S (1990) Some characteristics of Andosols from western

Indonesia. P sorption by soils developed on basalt conforms less well to

both Langmuir (linear regression coefficient r, range 0.88-0.99, median

0.99) and Freundlich (r, range 0.71-0.99, median 0.92) equations

compared with soils on other parent materials.

Borling K (2003) Phosphorus sorption, accumulation and leaching:

Effects of long-term inorganic fertilization of cultivated soils. More than 70% of the

soils were acidic, with pH 5.0. Sawi (Sw) 99[degrees]3’24″ 4-5 Para rubber

7. Sawi (Sw) SL 2.6

7. Phuket (Pk) 99[degrees]18’30″ 3-4 Para rubber

17. Chumphon (Cp) VGSL 1.0

10. doi: 10.1016/0016-7061 (82)90022-2

where x is amount of phosphate sorbed ([micro]g/g soil), c is P

concentration in the equilibrium solution ([micro]g/mL), k is an

empirical coefficient which is a measure of total sorption surface, and

b is an empirical coefficient related to the energy of sorption.

Dithionite- and oxalate-extractable iron and aluminium


Typical P sorption isotherms for the Thai soils, including those

with the highest and lowest P sorption capacities for each parent

material, are given in Fig. 122-132.

The objectives of this study were to determine the accuracy of

predictions of P sorption by Thai soils based upon values of dithionite-

and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al.

(A) Department of Soil Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok

10900, Thailand.

The amounts of DCB- and oxalate-extractable Al were similar, with

median values of 1.6 and 0.95 g/kg, respectively (Fig. doi:


Yoshinaga N, Yoshiro K, Makoto N (1989) Mineralogy of red- and

yellow-colored soils from Thailand. Krabi (Kbi) 98[degrees]45’30″ 4-5 Para rubber

9. Soil Science

Society America Proceedings 38, 250-255.

Rayment GE, Higginson ER (1992) ‘Australian laboratory

handbook of soil and water chemical methods.’ (Inkata Press:

Melbourne, Vic.)

Singh B (1991) Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of soils

from south-western Australia. doi: 10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5

Concentrations of Fed in soils ranged from 4 to 74 g/kg, with a

median of 16.3g /kg. 263-310. Fang Danag (Fd) Tha Chang district, 9[degrees]12’49″


6. Soil Science 119, 167-177.

Loganathan P, Isiriman NO, Nwachuku DA (1987) Phosphorus sorption

by Ultisols and Inceptisols of Niger delta on southern Nigeria. Mae Taeng (Mt) Wang Thong district, 16[degrees]46’37″


22. Tha Mai (Ti) Tha Mai district, 12[degrees]38’36″


19. There are

close positive relationships between P sorption and the abundance of

crystalline (dithionite) and amorphous (oxalate) iron oxides in many

soils from diverse environments (Ballard and Fiskell 1974; Borggaard

1983; Pena and Torrent 1984; Loganathan et al. The sites are nearly flat to

undulating, with slopes of 2-8% and are mostly used for agriculture.

These soils are classified as belonging to the kaolinitic mineralogical

classes of Ultisol, Oxisol, and Alfisol. (USDA: Washington, DC)

Oxalate-extractable Fe concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 13.8 g/kg,

with a median of 1.5 g/kg (Fig. However, other differences between surface

soils and subsoils include abundant organic matter in topsoils, which

can bind onto clay and sesquioxides and inhibit sorption of phosphate

(Sample et al. Soil Science 157, 36-45.



Manuscript received 21 February 2005, accepted 16 June 2005

Sanyal SK, De Datta SK, Chan PY (1993) Phosphate

sorption-desorption behavior of some acidic soils of South and Southeast

Asia. Lopez-Hernandez and Barnham (1974) reported

that there was no significant relationship between OM and P sorption in

some British and tropical soils, as did Udo and Uzu (1972) for some

well-drained Nigerian soils.

Fitter AH, Sutton CD (1975) The use of the Freundlich isotherm for

soil phosphate sorption data. Klong Thom (Km) SL 2.2

3. Soil Science 59, 39-45.

Sayin M, Mermut AR, Tiessen H (1990) Phosphate sorption-desorption

characteristics by magnetically separated soil fractions. Specific surface

area (SSA) was measured using the [N.sub.2]-BET method (Aylmore et al.

1970) with a Micrometrics Gemini III 2375 surface area analyser.

Pena F, Torrent J (1990) Predicting phosphate sorption in soils of

Mediterranean regions. Fertilizer Research 23, 173-179. The organic matter content

of the soils ranged from 0.9 to 26.5 g/kg, with a median of 6.4g/kg.

Values of OM ranged from 4.1 to 26.5 g/kg (median 11.2 g/kg) for surface

soils and 0.9 to 12.2g/kg (4.9 g/kg) for subsoils. After

shaking, the soil suspensions were centrifuged and the supernatant liquid was decanted and analysed for P by the molybdate blue method

(Murphy and Riley 1962). Chok Chai (Ci) 102[degrees]19’16″ 2-4 Cassava

21. 1974; Fitter and Sutton 1975).

Karim MI, Adams WA (1984) Relationships between sesquioxides,

kaolinite, and phosphate sorption in a catena of Oxisols in Malawi. The close relationship between P sorption

and SSA for Thai soils was also observed for southern Nigerian soils

(Loganathan et al. 545-566. Particle size analysis

confirmed the field observations of texture; the soils developed on

sandstone and granite generally contained much sand, whereas those on

shale/limestone and basalt mostly had 50% clay. Field soil texture for the Thai soils ranged from sandy loam to clay.

Some soils contained a few particles 2 mm. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62, 1651-1658.

Forty-five soil samples from 22 profiles were taken from surface

and subsurface horizons of soils on sandstone, shale/limestone, granite,

and basalt, which are representative of many of the soils used for

agriculture in Thailand (Vijarnsorn 2000). Soil Science Society of America

Proceedings 33, 438-444.

Siradz SA (2000) Mineralogy and chemistry of red soils of

Indonesia. Journal of Soil Science 12, 294-306.

Lopez-Hernandez ID, Barnham CP (1974) The covariance of phosphate

sorption and other soil properties in some British and tropical soils.

Journal of Soil Science 25, 196-206.

Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1991) Phosphorus sorption in relation to soil

properties for the major soil types of south-western Australia.

Australian Journal of Soil Research 29, 603-518. Signifcant relationships of P sorption capacity values with

dithionite- and oxalateextractable Fe and Al have been reported by many

authors (Syers et al. Journal of Soil Science 26, 241-246.

Bromfield SM (1965) Studies on the relative importance of iron and

aluminum in the sorption of phosphate by some Australian soils.

Australian Journal of Soil Research 3, 31-44. Fang Danag (Fd) SC 2.0

6. (Ed. (American Society of

Agronomy: Madison, WI)

Holmgren GGS (1967) A rapid citrate-dithionite extractable iron

procedure. Some of the surface soils developed on

shale/limestone (Pc, Ak, and Ptu) and basalt (Ci) were only slightly

acid with pH(water) 6.0-6.5. Soil Science 112, 267-275.

The ratio of [Fe.sub.o]/[Fe.sub.d] has been taken as an indicator

of the maturity or crystallinity of free iron oxides in soils (Blume and

Schwertmann 1969). Hang Chat (Hc) SL 15.1


18. Maataloustietullinen Aikakaukirza 35,


W. The Freundlich b coefficient, which is an

indicator of the energy of adsorption, ranged from 0.21 to 0.66, with a

median of 0.39. Sandy soils tended to sorb

less P so that P sorption maximum values for soils developed on

sandstone (132 [micro]g/g) and granite (313 [micro]g/g) were generally

less than for shale/limestone and basalt (579 [micro]g/g). Journal of Soil Science 43, 645-567.

(D) Corresponding author. However, in this study it appears that both [Al.sub.d] and

[Al.sub.o] are superior indicators for P sorption for these soils, in

accordance with many previous studies (Bromfield 1965; Sayin et al.

1990; Singh and Gilkes 1991; Agbenin and Tiessen 1994; Siradz 2000;

Agbenin 2003). Chalong (Chl) C 5.5

16. Kohong (Kh) LS 3.2

2. 5. Soil Science 124, 370-376.

Burkitt LL, Moody PW, Gourley CJP, Hannah MC (2002) A simple

phosphorus buffering index for Australian soils. Kasetsart Journal of

Natural Science 19, 265-271.


Materials and methods

Barrow NJ, Shaw TC (1975) The slow reactions between soil and

anion. Tasae (Te) SL 2.6

5. Lawrance lowlands. Phuket (Pk) Ban Na San district, 8[degrees]42’12″


17. We have not followed this procedure in the

present research because we wanted to use the same procedures as in the

previous studies (where this modification was not made) with which we

are comparing our results.

We gratefully acknowledge the support of this work by the Royal

Golden Jubilee PhD program under the Thailand Research Fund for

financial support. Chiang Khong (Cg) CL-C 1.7

Table 2. These values are similar to those for Ultisols from

Nigeria (5 80g/kg) (Mosugu et al. Analytica Chimica Acta 27,

31-36. doi: 10.1016/00167061


Accurately weighed amounts of about 1.0 g of air-dried soil samples

(2 mm fraction) in 20 mL 0.01 M Ca[Cl.sub.2] containing K[H.sub.2]

P[O.sub.4] at various concentrations were shaken on an end-over-end

shaker at 25 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C for 17 h, and a few drops of toluene were added to suppress microbial action (Ozanne and Shaw 1967). Soil Science 37, 29-38.

Fitzpatrick RW, Schwertmann U (1982) Al-substitution goethite–an

indicator of pedogenic and other weathering environments in South

Africa. Tasae (Te) 100[degrees]30’55″ 4-5 Para rubber

5. Tha Mai (Ti) 102[degrees]2’42″ 5-8 Para rubber

19. Hang Chat (Hc) Hang Chat district, 18[degrees]19’25″



18. Chok Chai (Ci) Khonburi district, 14[degrees]31’58″

Nakhon Ratchasima

21. The highest values of DCB- and

oxalate-Al were for soils developed on basalt (median [Al.sub.d] 3.5 and

[Al.sub.o] 1.3 g/kg), followed by those on shale/limestone (median

[Al.sub.d] 2.3 and [Al.sub.o] 1.1 g/kg), granite (median [Al.sub.d] 1.4

and [Al.sub.o] 0.8 g/kg), and sandstone (median [Al.sub.d] 0.7 and

[Al.sub.o] 0.4 g/kg). Available P was

determined by the Bray II method (Bray and Kurtz 1945). 2. These values are similar to those for Ultisols and Inceptisols of the Niger delta in southern Nigeria (337 [micro]g/g) (Loganathan et

al. pp. 1971).

Agbenin JO, Tiessen H (1994) The effects of soil properties on the

differential phosphate sorption by semi-arid soils from Northeast

Brazil. MSc thesis, University of Western Australia.

Agbenin JO (2003) Extractable iron and aluminum effects on

phosphate sorption in a savanna Alfisols. Holmgren (1967) reported that DCB-extractable Al

is thought to be the Al that is substituted for [Fe.sup.3+] in

crystalline Fe oxides. logx) equations are shown in Fig. Tha Mai (Ti) C 82.0

19. Fang Danag (Fd) 99[degrees]8’12″ 5-8 Para rubber

6. 1971; Udo and Uzu 1972; Juo and Fox 1977; Jones

1981; Karim and Adams 1984; Loganathan et al. The SSA of these

soils ranged from 2 to 78 [m.sup.2]/g, with a median of 23 [m.sup.2]/g.

About 80% of the samples had SSA 40 [m.sup.2]/g (Fig. PhD thesis, University of Western



Juo AS R, Fox RL (1977) Phosphorus sorption characteristics of some

bench-mark soils of West Africa. The

highest values of SSA were for soils developed on basalt (range 28 78

[m.sup.2]/g, median 41 [m.sup.2]/g), followed by those on

shale/limestone (7-61 [m.sup.2]/g, 32 [m.sup.2]/g), granite (5-24

[m.sup.2]/g, 14 [m.sup.2]/g), and sandstone (2-30 [m.sup.2]/g, 8


The frequency distributions of DCB- and oxalate-soluble Fe and Al

values for 45 soil samples are given in Fig. Klong Chak (Kc) 102[degrees]29’12″ 5-8 Para rubber

11. Pathiu (Ptu) Pathiu district, 10[degrees]43’38″



14. Effect of time and temperature on the decrease in phosphate

concentration in the soil solution. Gilkes (C)

Blume HP, Schwertmann U (1969) Genetic evaluation of profile

distribution of Al, Fe and Mn oxides. Tasae (Te) Hadyai district, Songkla 7[degrees]6’12″

5. Sadao (Sd) 99[degrees]26’50″ 4-5 Forest plantation

4. Chalong (Chl) Ban Na San district, 8[degrees]47’18″


16. The regression

coefficient (r) for the Langmuir equation (range 0.88-0.99, median 0.99)

was mostly larger than for the Freundlich equation (0.71-0.99, median

0.96). The soils developed on basalt and

shale/limestone exhibit greater P sorption than those on granite and


Sorption of phosphate by Thai soils ranges from moderate ([x.sub.m]

= 35 [micro]g/g) to high (1111 [micro]g/g). Mae Taeng (Mt) 100[degrees]25’16″ 2-3 Mango

22. doi: 10.1071/SR9910603

Values of Langmuir P sorption maximum ([x.sub.m]) for the Thai

soils ranged from 35 to 1111 [micro]g/g, with a median of 370 [micro]g/g

(Fig. Soil Science Society of

America Journal 64, 659-670.

Natural Resources Conservation Service (1996) ‘Soil survey

laboratory methods manual.’ Soil Survey Investigation Report No.

42, version 3.0. Yasothon (Yt) Kumuang district, Buriram 15[degrees]14’33″


8. Matrix of correlation coefficients (r) for linear

relationships between P sorption parameters and some soil

properties for Thai soils

Number of samples = 44


[x.sub.m] a (mL/

Parameters ([micro]g/g) [micro]g)

[Fe.sub.d] 0.69 *** 0.38 *

[Fe.sub.o] 0.65 *** 0.47 **

[Al.sub.d] 0.88 *** 0.47 **

[Al.sub.o] 0.80 *** 0.38 *

Clay 0.69 *** 0.32 *

SSA 0.88 *** 0.46 **

pH(1 : 1 [H.sub.2]O) 0.27 0.08

pH(1 : 1 KCl) 0.27 0.05

OM 0.06 -0.14


Parameters k ([micro]g/g) b

[Fe.sub.d] 0.64 *** -0.40 *

[Fe.sub.o] 0.85 *** -0.14

[Al.sub.d] 0.89 *** -0.18

[Al.sub.o] 0.86 *** -0.00

Clay 0.60 *** -0.29

SSA 0.86 *** -0.30 *

pH(1 : 1 [H.sub.2]O) 0.21 -0.25

pH(1 : 1 KCl) 0.23 -0.22

OM -0.04 0.07

* P 0.05; ** P 0.01; *** P 0.001.

Table 3. Surin (Su) VGC 3.6

20. 4. 1989; Yoothong et al. PhD thesis, University of Western Australia.

Ballard R, Fiskell JGA (1974) Phosphorus concentration in coastal

plain forest soils. Thai Muang (Tim) Takua Tung district, 8[degrees]16’20″


15. They are also similar to values for Alfisols in the northern

Guinea savanna in Nigeria (range 103-460 [micro]g/g) (Agbenin 2003) but

are much lower than values for some other tropical soils, including

Andosols in Indonesia (4510 [micro]g/g) (Sjarif 1990), Oxisols developed

on volcanic ash in the Philippines (6944-14208 [micro]g/g) (Poudal and

West 1999), and Indonesian red soils (719-2747 [micro]g/g) (Siradz

2000). Geoderma 33, 283-296. The relatively high concentration of [Al.sub.d]

for the soils on basalt where most [Fe.sub.d] occurs may indicate that

Al substitution in iron oxides may be more abundant in these soils than

in the other soils. Much [Al.sub.d] is present in iron oxides

(Holmgren 1967) and the DCB reagent may extract Al substituting for Fe

in goethite and hematite, in addition to the amorphous and poorly

crystalline forms of Al dissolved by the other extractants (Singh and

Gilkes 1991). doi: 10.1071/SR9650031

Vijarnsorn P (2000) Land use conversions in Thailand. Klong Thom (Km) Pathiu district, Chumphon 10[degrees]45’40″

3. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations

are often used (Olsen and Watanabe 1957; Kaila 1963; Bache and Williams

1971; Pena and Torrent 1990) to fit P sorption data but may provide good

fits for only a limited range of P concentrations in solution (Syers et

al. Thai Muang (Tim) Co-SCL 211.0

15. Ao Luk (Ak) C 0.8

13. The much closer

relationships between the maximum P sorption coefficients ([x.sub.m] and

k) are due to all possible surfaces having sorbed P to reach their

maximum P capacity regardless of the energy of sorption involved.

Kaila A (1963) Dependence of the phosphate sorption capacity on the

aluminium and iron oxide in soils. doi: 10.1071/AR9670601

Yoothong K, Moncharoen L, Vijarnsorn P, Eswaran H (1997) Clay

mineralogy of Thai soils. Bivarate plots for [x.sub.m] are shown in Fig. 2). Klong Chak (Kc) Muang districe, Trad 12[degrees]17’14″

11. Values of [x.sub.m] for subsoils (range 84-1111 [micro]g/g,

median 400 [micro]g/g) were higher than for surface soils (35-909

[micro]g/g, median 256 [micro]g/g) as shown in Fig. PhD

thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

x = k[c.sup.b]

Aylmore LAG, Sills ID, Quirk JP (1970) Surface area of homoionic

illite and montmorillonite clay minerals as measured by the sorption of

nitrogen and carbon dioxide. In ‘The role of phosphorus in

agriculture’. Freundlich k values for the Thai

soils were in the sequence basalt (range 218-1364 [micro]g/g, median 505

[micro]g/g) shale/limestone (72-742 [micro]g/g, 404 [micro]g/g)

granite (68-379 [micro]g/g, 168 [micro]g/g) sandstone (27-288

[micro]g/g, 100 [micro]g/g). Also thanks to Michael Smirk, University of Western

Australia, for assisting with the analyses.

McKeague JA, Brydon JE, Miles NM (1971) Differentiation of forms of

extractable iron and aluminium in soils. 1). Ao Luk (Ak) Ban Ta khun district, 8[degrees]56’57″


13. Surin (Su) 102[degrees]18’41″ 2-3 Cassava

20. 3), with no systematic

departure of data from the regression lines for any parent material.

Soil characteristics

Sample EC, Soper RL Racz GJ (1980) Reactions of phosphate

fertilizers in soils. Krabi (Kbi) Ao Luk district, Krabi 8[degrees]24″59″

9. Similarly for soils

from Nigeria, soil pH had no significant relationship with P sorption

(Loganathan et al. Email: agrals@ku.ac.th

Mehra OP, Jackson ML (1960) Iron oxide removal from soils and clays

by a dithionate-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. This may be due to liming, which is used

for agriculture in these areas. The highest concentrations of

amorphous Fe for Thai soils were for soils developed on basalt (range

1.5-13.8 g/kg, median 3.4 g/kg), followed by shale/limestone (0.9-6.9

g/kg, 2.2 g/kg), sandstone (0.2-1.4 g/kg, 0.7 g/kg), and granite

(0.3-2.5 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg).

Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of the Degtjareff method

for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the

chromic acid titration method. The

initial concentration needed ranged from 2 to 30[micro]g P/mL in order

to achieve final equilibrium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0

[micro]g P/mL in solution for each soil (5 points per soil). Suddhiprakarn (A,D), I.

Kheuruenromne (A), and R. 1998) and soils from Spain

(0.2-3.7 g/kg) (Pena and Torrent 1990). 1987) and for Ultisols and Alfisols formed from

acidic and basic rocks in West Africa (Juo and Fox 1977). Chok Chai (Ci) C 2.1

21. Various

mathematical models have been proposed for describing the relationship

between the amount of P sorbed per unit of soil and the coexisting

concentration of P in solution. Pathiu (Ptu) 99[degrees]15’26″ 2-3 Durian


14. The same trend

was observed for soils from the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria (103

[micro]g/g in surface soil and 460 [micro]g/g in subsoil) (Agbenin 2003)

and also for Swedish soils (Borling 2003). Soil

Science Society of America Journal 48, 406-409.

Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for the

determination of phosphate in natural waters. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57, 937-945.

Day DR (1965) Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. The Langmuir coefficient,

a, is related (inversely) to the energy of P adsorption and values are

in the sequence: basalt (range 1.3-15.0 mL/[micro]g, median 5.1

mL/[micro]g) shale/ limestone (0.7-14.0 mL/[micro]g, median 4.5

mL/[micro]g) sandstone (0.5-7.3mL/[micro]g, median 3.4mL/[micro]g)

granite (0.5-13.5 mL/[micro]g, median 2.6 mL/[micro]g) (Fig. It is evident that the P sorption characteristics of Thai

soils closely resemble those of similar soils from other tropical


(C) School of Earth and Geographical Science, Faculty of Natural

and Agricultural Science, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA

6009, Australia.

The frequency distributions for soil properties are given in Fig.


Table 1. 1999) and Indonesian red soils

(24-82g/kg) (Siradz 2000) but higher than for Western Australian soils

(median [Fe.sub.d] 6.2g/kg) (Singh 1991). 2. This is the reverse of the trend for Australian soils whose P

sorption data were described better by the Freundlich equation (Barrow

and Shaw 1975; Siradz 1985; Singh and Gilkes 1991 ; Burkitt et al.

2002). Journal of Soil Science 34, 333-341.

There were no highly significant relationships between soil

properties and Langmuir a or Freundlich b coefficients, which are

measures of P sorption energy. 1987; Pena and Torrent

1990; Singh and Gilkes 1991; Agbenin and Tiessen 1994; Siradz 2000;

Agbenin 2003; Boding 2003). PhD thesis, University of Western Australia.

The Langmuir equation has the form (Barrow 1978):

DCB- and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al were positively and quite

closely related to SSA for these soils (Fig. Relationship to soil properties. Values of Freundlich b were in the sequence granite

sandstone shale/limestone basalt, although there was

considerable overlap between values for soils on the 4 parent materials

(Fig. Clays

and Clay Minerals 7, 317-327.

Bache BW, Williams EG (1971) A phosphate sorption index for soils.

Journal of Soil Science 22, 289-301.


Ozanne PG, Shaw TC (1967) Phosphate sorption by soils as a measure

of the phosphate requirement for pasture growth. Soil

Science 144, 330-338.

Syers JK, Evans TD,Williams DH, Muradocks JT (1971) Phosphate

sorption parameters of representative soils from RioGrande Do Sul,

Brazil. Sadao (Sd) Bang Sa Phan Noi district, 11[degrees]0’10″

Prachuap Kirikhan

4. c/x) and

Freundlich (logc v. Mae Taeng (Mt) C 11.5

22. Clays and Clay Minerals 18, 91-96.


Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1992) Properties of soil kaolins from

south-western Australia. Phuket (Pk) SiL 1.8

17. 6). 6).

Land suitable for agriculture comprises about 52% of the total area

of Thailand and most soils are phosphate (P) deficient (Vijarnsorn

2000). Kohong (Kh) Hadyai district, Songkla 6[degrees]45’18″

2. Soil

Science Society of America Proceedings 21,144-149.

Bray RA, Kurtz LT (1945) Determination of total organic and

available phosphorus in soil. It is an important process affecting the availability

of phosphate to plants and the effectiveness of P fertiliser. doi:



The term ‘phosphate sorption’ is used here to describe

any process in which P ions in solution react with atoms on the surface

of soil particles. Soil

Science Society of America Journal 63, 1258-1273.

Jones RC (1981) X-ray diffraction line profile analysis vs

phosphorus sorption by 11 Puerto Rican soils. 1980). Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 36,


Olsen SR, Watanabe FS (1957) A method to determine a phosphorus

adsorption maximum of soils as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Soil Science Society of

America Journal 45, 828-825.

where x is the amount of phosphate sorbed per unit of soil

([micro]g/g soil), c is the phosphate concentration in equilibrium

solution ([micro]g/mL), a is a coefficient which is related to bonding

energy (mL/[micro]g), and [x.sub.m] is the sorption maximum ([micro]g/g


Stepwise regression analysis was used to obtain the most predictive

equation for maximum P sorption capacity as shown in Table 3

Spurs bets go East; RESULT!

l g -The

agent for Emmanuel Adebayor (right) has already requested 10 per cent of

the deal. l y e Football clubs are always looking at ways to gain a

slice of the massive Asian market, if only to access pirate DVDs. What are the

odds on that? Spurs have announced Fun88 as the club’s official

Asian betting and gaming partner in a lucrative twoyear deal. All rights reserved.

iabat Spurs and Fun88 hope inside the two-year agreement to launch

a new bespoke betting microsite and that’s not a bad idea – in two

years people might just know what it means.


No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

AT a time when most Premier League teams are signing players,

Tottenham have signed two deals with betting companies. But most British men have done the same thing.

k The Londoners have also just signed a deal making Betfred their

official UK partner.


Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. s e I

told a mate the other day that I once went to a casino in central Asia.

“Tibet?” he asked. “Why else?” I answered.


It does sound a bit like cheating, having one UK partner and one

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The ‘Electronic Herd’ Rides Again

And then to worry for hours or days or weeks if the equities market, as we’ve been lectured over and over again for the last two decades, is really the place to be for the long run.

As New York Times columnist and author Thomas Friedman keeps reminding us, the global market and the electronic herd shows no mercy.

In 1987, it was Black Monday and eventually the bursting of Japan’s enormous asset bubble. recession.

“Highly speculative” is what the seasoned analysts call the Shanghai stock market — it’s a reasonable description given that local Chinese call it Shanghai’s “slot machine.”

In fact, it is the sort of action the investment world has been urging China to undertake.

It would all be a curious anomaly if the world’s equity and bond markets were not so interconnected these days — by the Internet, by global institutions awash in cash, by international investors the world over chasing higher and higher returns.

It is also what the experts might call a “frothy market,” or more ominously, “a bubble.” So, for many it was no surprise when Shanghai suddenly sold off by 9 percent in one day, its biggest plunge in a decade.

A slot that has paid off handsomely over the last year, doubling almost every bet.

Not true, the Chinese government announced in a very transparent effort at crisis management. And, almost immediately, the slots were paying off again — the market went up today more than 4 percent.

Any perception of weakness, any bureaucratic misstep by governments, any misguided attempt by financial markets to change rules to benefit their societies can lead to a harsh and brutal market reaction.

The sell-off was prompted by rumors that the Chinese government was set to impose new rules on its wild equities market, to try to rein in the speculative excess.

Suddenly, one market plunges and the fear and nervousness become tangible, palpable, global. The individual investor is left looking (or fearing to look) at his or her 401(k) to see how bad the damage is.

The analysts now say that Shanghai was just “the excuse everyone was looking for to take some chips off the table.”

Was there any logical reason to believe that an effort by the Chinese government to impose some rational behavior on its unruly markets would somehow fundamentally damage the Chinese economy, the world’s fastest-growing economy with tentacles reaching every corner of the planet? No.

Today, there is uncertainty and insecurity the world over — markets are at record highs; real estate values are plunging in some markets; there are wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and warnings of a U.S. In 1997, it was the attack on SE Asian currencies and the start of the Asian contagion that affected markets around the globe.

Nothing personal. A sell-off in Shanghai may have no real economic effect on any of us, but we can all vicariously feel the fright of a scary plunge.

The economic reality that we must all live with in today’s high-speed, hi-tech, interconnected global marketplace is that nervousness, fear and panic also know no boundaries.

Usually it’s the big institutions and hedge funds that trim their bets before the next markets in the next time zones even open for business. It’s just globalization.

I’ve been whipsawed through a few of these global equity panics during my years in Asia.

Singapore police raid Senegalese ‘casino consulate’ on gambling tip.

All rights reserved.

A total of 31 people — 14 Singaporeans and 17 foreigners — were

arrested in the raid at the consulate on the fifth floor of a building

in the eastern part of Singapore, police said.

Singapore, which recently lifted a longtime ban on casinos, now

only legally allows gambling such as lotteries, bets on football

matches and horseracing.

Singapore’s Foreign Minister George Yeo was quoted as saying

the incident should not affect diplomatic ties between the two



Copyright 2006 Gale, Cengage Learning. 5 Kyodo

The Sunday Times said that up to 100 punters regularly congregated

at the site.

Local newspapers reported more than S$1 million (US$640,000) was

changing hands each night and that the consulate even had a VIP room

for high-rollers willing to bet at least S$100,000

According to the Singapore Foreign Ministry, honorary consuls do

not enjoy diplomatic immunity and privileges, and it is up to the

police to decide on the action to take against Kusni.

Singapore police raided Senegal’s consulate late Friday after

getting a tip-off the consulate was being used for illegal gambling, a

police spokesman said Sunday.

Singapore police are still looking for Senegal’s honorary

consul, Indonesian businessman Benny Kusni, who has gone missing.

Of them, 23 were charged in the Subordinate Court with operating

an illegal gambling den.

COPYRIGHT 2006 Kyodo News International, Inc.

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Singapore and Senegal established diplomatic ties in 1999.

Factory repair of systems, mbt leopard 2 activity w88.

The customer has no

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COPYRIGHT 2014 SyndiGate Media Inc.

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

This contract is divided into lots: yes

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drawn up: German.

Second presentation of an insurance policy in copy on the

conclusion of a civil liability insurance (industry-standard public

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Hacking by China not necessarily a “hostile act” – CNN Security Clearance

this week and asked Dempsey if there was anything he wanted to pass on to Xi Jinping.. Martin Dempsey, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said he “believe(s) someone in China is hacking into our systems and stealing technology and intellectual property which at this point is a crime.”

By Adam Levine

But Dempsey told the Senate Armed Services Committee where he was testifying that he cannot attribute the Chinese hacking to China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army.

“Happy Valentine’s Day,” Dempsey replied.

Asked by Republican Senator Lindsey Graham from South Carolina if it could be proven that the PLA was behind a hacking of the defense infrastructure, would it be considered a “hostile act,” Dempsey said it wasn’t necessarily.

Graham noted he was about to lunch with the Vice President of China who is in the U.S. infrastructure, it would not necessarily be a “hostile act.”

Gen. top military officer said should China’s military be found to be behind hacks into the U.S.

“I would consider it a crime,” Dempsey said. Asked what he would consider a hostile act, Dempsey said “attacking our critical infrastructure” would be a act worthy of a similar response.

The U.S

Zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia.

Rock and mineral collecting in Canada. Greenough et al.

(1989) showed that basalt at Five Islands, Partridge Island, and Gape

d’Or conformably overlying the Blomidon Formation is

strarigraphically equivalent to the lower lava unit on North Mountain.

They suggested that at McKay Head (not sampled in this study), a thick

flow equivalent to the upper lava unit on North Mountain is overlain by

several thinner flows and then by the McCoy Brook Formation. b.d. 61, pp. 2a, 2c, 2e;

Fig. The dominant zeolite minerals in Kings

County are “heulandite” and stilbite.

In general, Ca ions can crystallize out of aqueous solution at much

higher temperatures than Na and K (Kotz and Purcell 1987, p. In the basalt, zeolites are common in some thinner joints

with neptunian dykes (Fig. = below detection limit

E = chemical balance error, [(Al+ [Fe.sup.3+])-[Al.sub.theor]]x100/

[Al.sub.theor] (after Passaglia 1975)

Table 2

Electron microprobe analyses of representative zeolite minerals from

Kings County

Mineral Mesolite Scolecite

Sample Z23 Z23

Analysis No. Canadian

Journal of Earth Sciences, v. b.d.

Si/Al 2.61 2.62 3.00 3.11 3.05

E% -2.0 -2.3 6.5 -1.8 1.0

Mineral “Heulandite” Epistilbite Barrerite

Sample 153 W166 W176 W168

Analysis No. Jurassic basalts of the northern Bay of Fundy

region, Nova Scotia. 0.50

MgO b.d. 26, pp. New insights into the classification and

formation of zeolites hosted by the North Mountain Basalt, Annapolis

Valley, southern Nova Scotia. The term

“acadialite” has been applied by previous workers to the pink

variety of chabazite. Fe, Mg, and K were

not detected.

Five Islands

Thirty polished thin sections of representative specimens from the

North Shore of the Minas Basin were prepared for detailed study by

electron microprobe. b.d. b.d.



Total 91.01 91.81 90.31 90.02 90.58

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 80 72 72 72

Si 24.2 29.55 29.28 29.15

Al 16 6.49 6.73 6.87

Fe b.d.

Mg b.d.

Ca 1.43 3.03 3.18 3.21

Na 12.36 0.16 0.19 0.17

K b.d. Scolecite has been identified only by XRD and some

massive samples described as scolecite on the basis of hand specimen

character were identified as mesolite by XRD and electron microprobe.


Zeolite identification is based on hand-specimen identification,

electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.

Two-hundred samples from the North Shore of the Minas Basin and seventy

samples from Kings County have been studied.


Chabazite and stilbite are abundant among our studied samples;

“heulandite”, barrerite, epistilbite, and natrolite are rare.

We have not identified thomsonite, reported by Booth (1994). Where faulting and

sedimentation was synchronous with zeolite formation, as at Wasson

Bluff, geological field evidence can be used to determine the sequence

of formation of secondary minerals.

APPLEMAN, D.E., EVANS, H,T.,JR 1973.Job 9214: indexing and

least squares refinement of powder diffraction data. b.d.

SrO b.d. Stilbite, “heulandite”, and analcime are

common, natrolite and thomsonite are rare. Electron-microprobe

analyses were conducted at the Regional Microprobe Centre at Dalhousie

University and the XRD analyses at the Geological Survey of Canada

(Atlantic). 3.8

K b.d. Stop 11.2, Five Islands Provincial Park. 1). Chabazite was

reported by Sabina (1965) from Mink Cove and Cape Split, but we have

found no samples at Arlington Quarry and Morden (Pe-Piper 2000).

Mordenite, which is common in Kings County, has not been found on the

North Shore of the Minas Basin.

The zeolite mineral assemblages vary in each study locality on the

North Shore of the Minas Basin. b.d.

Si/Al 2.63 2.77 2.81 2.97

E% -22.0 -20.3 3.5 3.1

Mineral Stilbite

Sample Z401

Analysis No. 72

Si 26.92

Al 9.08



Ca 4.18

Na 0.71

K b.d.

Si/Al 2.97

E% 0.1

Notes: WC = Woodworth Cove

AV = Amethyst Cove

BARTH-WIRSCHING, U., HOLLER, H. b.d. The natrolite and tetranatrolite from Arlington Quarry in

hand specimen do not differ from those from North Shore and their

chemical characteristics are also similar (Fig. b.d. Book privately

published, 37 p.

On geological criteria, the relative timing of crystallisation is

much less clear. The oldest basaltic clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation

contain sparse zeolite in amygdales even where matrix zeolite is absent,

suggesting that the oldest zeolitization predated erosion of the clasts

at fault scarps in the basalt, However, the predominant zeolitization

appears to affect the McCoy Brook Formation and the North Mountain

Basalt equally. The chemical range of

“heulandite” is similar to that at Morden (Pe-Piper 2000),

except that no Na-clinoptilolite or K-heulandite has been found in the

present study. In: Tectonic, depositional, and

paleoecological history of Early Mesozoic rift basins, eastern North

America. Schlische and Olsen (1989) noted that narrow

neptunian dykes are commonly silicified, and that cataclastic basalt

contains chabazite, but some faults that they interpreted as almost

syn-depositional lack zeolite mineralisation.

Chabazite to gmelinite to barite

PASSAGLIA, E. American Journal of

Science, v. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.

27, pp. This area thus provides the opportunity to

determine the relative timing of zeolite mineral formation, in

relationship to synchronous faulting.

Eighty-seven representative samples from the North Shore and eleven

samples from Kings County were selected for X-ray diffraction. 0.11 0.16 1.7

Na 13.78 15.41 15.08 14.88 12.09

K b.d. 80 80 80

Si 24.28 24.3 24.49

Al 15.97 15.96 15.25

Fe b.d. Clasts in the talus-slope and debris-flow deposits

(Fig. 3). Heulandite (sensu stricto) and stilbite are

abundant in Arlington Quarry and very little Na was accommodated in

their crystal structures. Where possible, analyses with a

chemical balance error (E) (Passaglia 1975) of 10% are given in the

table and illustrated in Figures 5 and 6, but in cases where no other

analyses were available, some analyses with higher balance errors are

included. In contrast to Arlington

Quarry, within individual crystals of mesolite from the North Shore, Si,

Al, and Ca increase from core to rim and K was detected, but

(Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) from the two areas is similar.

COPYRIGHT 2002 Atlantic Geoscience Society

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

DEWET, C.C.B., HUBERT, J.F. Zeolite samples were collected on

the east side of the headland and are common in joints, veins, and vugs.

Epistilbite is generally vitreous and colourless to pink.

Where columnar joints in basalt have been progressively widened,

they commonly filled with neptunian dykes of red sandstone and mudstone

(Fig. 305-330.

Stilbite commonly occurs as vitreous sheaves or plates (Fig. b.d. 80 80 96 96

Si 22.13 22.18 33.70 33.38

Al 17.86 17.64 14.36 14.63

Ca 6.32 6.40 b.d. 5 and 6, zeolites from Arlington Quarry cluster much

more tightly than those from the North Shore. b.d. The upper part of the format ion consists of red

fluvial sandstone. 0.49 0.6 b.d.

Si/Al 2.61 2.85 3.12 3.13 3.06

E% 1.9 1.2 -5.2 -2.5 -6.1

Mineral Stilbite Stilbite

Sample Z230 Z31 Z31

Analysis No. b.d. Calcite, silica

minerals, and barite, the last of which occurs alone or with quartz, are

commonly associated with the zeolite minerals.

“Heulandite” from Arlington Quarry is generally pink,

earthy, and massive, and shows three clusters in terms of Si/Al ratio at

~4.5, ~3.1, and ~2.8 (Fig. 1989; Stevens 1987; Olsen 1989). 1995. 1965-1976.

The zeolites identified in the Five Island area are chabazite,

“heulandite”, barrerite, and stilbite. Des nodules de quartz et d’


The vesicular and jointed basalt at Cape Sharp also overlies red

sandstone of the Blomidon Formation. Schlische and Olsen

(1989) also described extensive outcrops of “rubblized” basalt

(Fig. b.d.

Na 5.29 5.58 14.12 14.59

K b.d. 771 772 859

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 45.53 45.09 46.17

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 25.40 25.12 24.38

[FeO.sup.t] b.d. Nova Scotia Department of

Natural Resources, Mines and Energy Branch, Open File Report 96-001, 3O


Other North Shore localities

Hydrothermal origin of zeolites

OLSEN, P.E. b.d. We have analysed gmelinite and

analcime, with gmelinite having been the first to crystallize.

GREENOUGH, J.D., JONES, L.M., MOSSMAN, D.J. They were interpreted by Schlische and Olsen (1989) to

represent active tectonic extension of the North Mountain Basalt and

filling of fractures by sediment from above. Les matieres

predominantes remplissant let vacuoles dans Ic basalte sont Ia

caladonite et la silice, en compagnie de petites quantites

d’, de chabasite et d’analcime.

Les clastes basaltiques let plus ages a l’interieur de la Formation

de McCoy Brook renferment un assemblage mineral analogue (notamment de

l’ et de la chabasite de faible

densite) dans let geodes, ce qui laisse supposer que la zeolitisation la

plus ancienne a precede I’erosion des clasres aux escarpements des

failles dans le basalte. 3.14 0.54

Total 85.03 84.59 85.63 86.01

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 1987. Basalt breccias and

conglomerates in the Lower Jurassic McCoy Brook Formation, Fundy Basin,

Nova Scotia: differentiation of talus and debris-flow deposits. 48 49 176 180

Locality WassonBluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.61 58.88 57.19 58.05

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.81 16.54 16.88 15.67

CaO 5.05 5.24 4.71 5.97

[Na.sub.2]O 1.11 0.40 0.70 0.73

[K.sub.2]O 1.31 1.09 2.40 0.74

BaO b.d. New petrographic evidence in Pe-Piper (2000), such as

the repetitive zonation in some amygdales and the amount of metal

precipitates, suggest a hydrothermal origin. 715 721 722 723

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 47.08 66.38 65.26 63.85

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.40 12.37 12.73 12.77

[FeO.sup.t] b.d.

MgO b.d.

CaO 2.59 6.35 6.62 6.57

[Na.sub.2]O 12.40 0.19 0.22 0.19

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. Most other

minerals show a narrow range of compositions, particularly in Si/Al




In summary, the work of Schlische and Olsen (1989) showed that

extrusion of North Mountain Basalt and deposition of the immediately

overlying sediments of the McCoy Brook Formation took place during

active strike-slip faulting and the formation of a small transtensional

graben (Fig. 90 94 142 146

Locality Wasson Bluff Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.94 58.02 59.24 59.01

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 21.93 22.05 22.27 21.95

CaO b.d. 0.29

Total 85.17 86.01 85.38 87.25

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 0.55

CaO 14.55 14.71 14.55 13.50

[Na.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. 0.44

Ca 8.29 8.31 8.24 7.7

Na b.d. 72 48 48 72

Si 27.26 18.43 18.27 27.78

Al 8.87 5.82 5.94 7.86

Ca 3.91 1.83 1.68 2.15

Na 0.53 0.68 1.33 3.99

K b.d. 21).

Tetranatrolite resembles natrolite and was identified only by

chemical analysis.

Chabazite + “heulandite” + quartz to stilbite,

Gmelinite is generally pink and vitreous with well formed

colourless hexagonal dipyramid, prism and pinacoid crystals (Fig. b.d. 2k), presumably reflecting the

greater brittleness of the basalt. Barth-Wirshing and Holler (1989) suggested that

chabazite forms from basaltic glass at temperatures of 50-150[degrees]

C, whereas heulandite forms from rhyolitic glass at temperatures of

150-225[degrees]C. 52 53 20 21

Locality Partridge Is. Rocks younger than

the McCoy Brook Formation are not present in the region, so that the age

of the youngest zeolitization cannot be determined.

“Heulandite” to silica minerals to “heulandite”

to stilbite

The zeolite minerals identified on the North Shore of the Minas

Basin include “heulandite”, chabazite, gmelinite, analcime,

wairakite, stilbite, barrerite, natrolite, scolecite, mesolite,

thomsonite, laumontite, stellerite, tetranatrolite, and epistilbite. Amygdaloidal basalt flows have amygdale fillings principally of celadonite and silica minerals, with minor

amounts of zeolite. Field

identification was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electron

microprobe chemical analyses.

Cape Sharp

Scolecite was not identified in the field and detected only by XRD.

Kotz, J.C., PURCELL, K.F. 4e).


Partridge Island

SCHLISCHE, R.W. The extracts were then powdered

using an agate mortar and pestle. 1.25 1.06 1.70

BaO b.d.

SrO b.d.

Total 83.13 86.57 85.06 82.82

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 1989). Zeolites in the basalt are mostly in

veins and less commonly in cavities.


Les analyses par diffraction des rayons X et par microsonde

electronique revelent Ia presence des assemblages ci-apres dans Ics

coulees basaltiques et les roches sedimentaires silicoclastiques

sus-jacentes le long du rivage nord du Minas Basin: Five Islands –

predominance de chabasite et de stilbite, ainsi qu’

heulandite et barrerite; Two Islands — analcime (predominance), ainsi

que gmdinite, chabasite, stilbite et natrolite; Wasson Bluff-

predominance de chabasite, de stilbite et d’heulandite

, ainsi qu’herschalite, barrerite, stellerite, analcime,

wairakite, natrolite, clinoprilolite et thomsonite; Partridge Island –

predominance de chabasite et de stilbite, ainsi qu’analcime,

epistilbite, natrolite, barrerite, et heulandite ; Cape Sharp -

chabasite, stilbite, barrerite, stellerite et heulandite

; Horseshoe Cove — heulandite et stilbite; Cape

d’Or Quest — predominance d’analcime, de stilbite, de

natrolite et de mesolite, ainsi que stelldrite, epistilbite, barrerite,

scolecite, chabasite , heulandite , wairakite, retranatrolite et


This work was supported partly by the Natural Sciences and

Engineering Council of Canada Research Grant. Edited by P.E. Ackermann et al. 1836. b.d. 0.51 b.d. Some of the thinner neptunian dykes

appear to be silicified (Schlische and Olsen 1989). b.d. 97 98 161 162

Locality Wasson Bluff Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 55.14 57.42 59.69 57.08

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.65 18.34 19.49 19.18

CaO 8.70 7.66 8.58 8.58

[Na.sub.2]O 4.59 3.53 2.58 3.32

[K.sub.2]O 1.03 0.86 0.68 0.85



Total 87.11 87.81 91.02 89.01

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 80 80 80 80

Si 24.59 24.54 24.56 22.28

Al 15.36 15.43 15.33 17.63

Ca 4.81 5.27 5.34 6.21

Na 5.95 5.02 5.11 5.57

K b.d. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 26.96 26.95 27.12 27.16 27.16

Al 8.86 8.79 8.99 9.00 8.94



Ca 4.25 4.32 3.85 3.68 3.71

Na 1.08 1.09 b.d. Nine types of

zeolite were identified: epistilbite, scolecite, stilbite, stellerite,

heulandite (sensu stricto), clinoptilolite, mesolite, thomsonite, and

rare analcime (Table 2). Booth, personal communication, 1999). b.d. Pe-Piper (2000) proposed that the abundance of mordenite in

Kings County was in part related to extraction of Na from evaporites of

the Blomidon Formation. As temperatures fell, Na enrichment of the

circulating fluids resulted in crystallization of Na-rich zeolite

minerals, such as natrolite. b.d.

CaO 12.75 1.43 b.d. 860 862 863 773

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 45.55 45.76 46.07 38.58

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 24.78 25.19 24.66 30.17

[FeO.sup.t] b.d. 0.92 1.56

[Na.sub.2]O 4.39 15.56 16.19 15.06 14.92

[K.sub.2]O 1.76 b.d. (The outcrops are

inaccessible in the cliff, but have been sampled from modern talus).


“Heulandite” is generally vitreous and colourless to pink

to reddish orange (Fig. These representative spots were analysed by a

JEOL-733 with four wavelength spectrometers and a Tracor Northern 145-eV

energy dispersive system detector at the Department of Earth Sciences,

Dalhousie University. The McCoy Brook Formation

sedimentary rocks are host to, or cut by veins of,

“heulandite”, chabazite, stellerite, and silica minerals. b.d.

[Na.sub.2]O 5.18 5.45 12.06 13.02

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. The following sequences of

crystallization are recognised, from early to late:

Horseshoe Cove

How, H. b.d.

SrO 0.69 0.54 4.18 1.91

Total 82.58 83.01 86.06 83.07

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. As a result, only limited crystallization of Na-rich

zeolites (natrolite group) took place in the North Shore occurrences,

and the observed zeolites show a broad scatter in Na, Ca, Mg, and K

(Fig. Zeolites fill vugs in the basalt. 4h), either pink

or colourless. Clinoptilolite has

Si/Al4, whereas heulandite (sensu stricto) has values between 2.5

and 3. The associated

minerals include quartz, other forms of silica, malachite and magnetite.

Data are insufficient to determine an overall order of crystallization,

but sequences of quartz to stilbite, quartz to “heulandite”,

stilbite to laumontite, and mesolite to quartz are seen.

WITHJACK, M.O., OLSEN, P.E., SCHLISCHE, R.W. All rights reserved.

Arlington Quarry (Fig. 756-765).

High-temperature solutions are thus more likely to precipitate Ca-rich

zeolites than Na-rich zeolites. In individual crystals, Si content

decreases from core to rim, whereas Al and K increase, and Ca first

increases and then decreases. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.08 27.19 27.02 27.10

Al 9.15 8.81 9.19 9.30

Ca 3.19 3.30 3.68 3.20

Na 1.42 1.83 0.75 0.85

K 0.41 0.37 0.25 0.45

Si/Al 2.96 3.09 2.94 2.91

E% 11.4 0.1 9.9 20.8

Mineral Gmelinite “Heulandite”

Sample W193 W108

Analysis No. b.d. Within individual

crystals, Si, Al, Ca, and Na generally decrease from core to rim,

whereas Fe and Mg decrease. Gmelinite

was reported by Gilpin (1881) and natrolite by Walker and Parsons

(1922), but we did not identify those zeolite minerals. Journal

of Sedimentary Petrology, v. Late

fractures in the basalt flows predominantly contain chabazite.

DONOHOE, H.V. 65-77.

AUMENTO, F. 72 72 72 72

Si 26.98 27.53 27.55 26.60

Al 9.16 8.49 8.54 9.13



Ca 3.96 3.89 3.83 4.36

Na 0.49 0.46 0.35 1.48

K 0.18 0.19 0.18 b.d.

Si/Al 2.95 3.24 3.23 2.91

E% 6.6 0.6 4.3 -10.6

Mineral Stellerite

Sample Z40

Analysis No. U.S. The precipitation of

“heulandite”, a high-temperature zeolite, after stilbite, a

lower temperature zeolite, is noteworthy.

Wasson Bluff

Zeolites from basalt at Cape d’Or were collected from both

Horseshoe Cove in the east and the western part of Cape d’Or near

the lighthouse. b.d. 1.7

Na 3.82 14.4 15.24 11.71

K b.d. Edited by P.E. AND OLSEN, P.E. 2d). Ailleurs au North

Mountain, la pressence de mordenite, de natrolite et de laumontite a ute

confirmee. b.d. 1985. Analyses of stilbite

from the two areas shows similar Si/Al and (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratios (Fig.

6). (1995), the

Blomidon Formation contains a chaotic mudstone which can be traced for

35 km in the Fundy Rift Basin. Thomsonite from the North Shore has a higher

Si/Al ratio average of 1.25 (Fig. These thin

flows are not recognised on North Mountain and appear to be correlative with the flows at Wasson Bluff.

. 6a), lower Fe, Mg, and Ca, and Na

increases from core to rim of individual crystals. b.d. b.d.

Ca 7.35 0.79 b.d. As a result, average

(Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) is lower (Fig. Thomsonite, mesolite, and wairakite have narrow

compositional ranges. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.26 27.15 27.34 27.04

Al 8.7 8.82 8.68 8.91



Ca 4.12 4.13 4.15 4.24

Na 0.64 0.7 0.32 0.48

K b.d. At lower lemperatures on Ihe North Shore, Na was

accommodated in the structure ofchabazite and other zeolites such as

analcime, and final crystallisation was represented by only small

amounls of Na-rich zeolites (natrolite group).

Chabazite is usually vitreous and salmon pink, yellow, or

colourless. b.d. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.24 27.55 27.18 27.61

Al 9.37 9.17 9.46 8.79

Ca 2.56 2.64 2.40 3.04

Na 1.02 0.37 0.65 0.67

K 0.79 0.66 1.46 0.45

Si/Al 2.91 3.00 2.87 3.14

E% 35.3 45.4 37.1 21.9

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample W94 153

Analysis No. b.d. 1994. Saunders College Publishing, Montreal, 1020 p.

Analcime is generally vitreous and granular (Fig. 731 732 735 756 799

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 57.82 59.38 61.86 61.47 57.9

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.94 16.57 17.8 17.05 16.41



CaO 8.11 8.14 9.04 8.83 7.85

[Na.sub.2]O 0.67 0.19 0.79 0.51 0.49

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. In contrast, on the North Shore, all epistilbite, thomsonite,

and mesolite analyses lie in this field, together with wairakite and

many chabazite analyses, two minerals not analyzed from Kings County.

At Wasson Bluff, basalt flows of the North Mountain Basalt and

overlying siliciclastic sediments of the McCoy Brook Formation are all

dismembered by synchronous movement on the nearby left-lateral

Portapique Fault. 48 48 48 72

Si 16.37 16.46 16.00 29.39

Al 7.13 7.15 6.98 6.71

Ca 1.40 1.75 1.53 2.78

Na 6.20 5.09 7.94 0.49

K 0.11 0.13 0.06 0.26

Si/Al 2.30 2.30 2.29 4.38

E% -21.7 -17.9 -36.9 6.5

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample W102 W88 W120

Analysis No. 1996. 0.12 0.85 1.03 0.84

Si/Al 3.04 3.29 3.02 3.02 3.04

E% -7.5 -10.8 5.2 7.2 4.9

Mineral Stilbite Stellerite

Sample Z33 Z40

Analysis No. 190 191 99 101 102

Locality WassonBluff CapeSharp

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 55.44 55.17 57.68 59.75 59.12

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.99 17.83 16.33 16.30 16.43

CaO 8.11 7.98 7.79 8.46 8.28

[Na.sub.2]O 0.49 0.59 0.71 0.74 0.74

[K.sub.2]O 2.60 2.56 b.d. B.Sc. The Scots Bay Formation,

Nova Scotia, Canada, a Jurassic carbonate lake with silica-rich

hydrothermal springs. 0.2 1.37

Total 82.54 85.15 89.49 88.6 84.02

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. Zeolite mineral assemblages in

the North Mountain Basalt, Nova Scotia. Barr

The earliest Jurassic (Hettangian) North Mountain Basalt of the Bay

of Fundy has long been known for its rich assemblage of zeolite minerals

in amygdales, vugs, and fractures (Aumento 1966). It commonly occurs in cubic rhombohedra and is rarely



Total 86.71 86.93 88.34 85.97

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 1989. b.d. 1997. The zeolites of Nova

Scotia. Chemistry and Chemical

Reactivity. b.d.

Si/Al 1.56 1.54 1.59 1.09

E% -6.3 -5.8 -6.8 -4.6

Mineral Thomsonite Natrolite Tetranatrolite

Sample Z33 Z19 Z44 Z44

Analysis No. 0.48 0.41 1.03

Si/Al 3.07 3.17 3.08 3.54

E% 6.3 21.2 16.2 -15.6

Mineral Barrerite Natrolite

Sample W168 Z303 Z270

Analysis No. 151 152 22 24 138

Locality Caped’Or Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.75 49.41 48.60 48.39 48.83

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.26 26.40 26.09 26.09 26.02

CaO 1.82 b.d. Within

individual crystals, Ca and K generally decrease from core to rim,

whereas Na and Si increase.

Scolecite to stilbite

Two Islands

Heulandite (sensu stricto) to clinoptilolite to stilbite

TANNER, L.H., HUBERT, J.F. The “heulandite” from the North

Shore shows the same clusters of Si/Al ratio (Fig. Zeolites at Wasson Bluff commonly

occur in basalt, conglomerate with basalt clasts, and less commonly in

sandstone, but on average make up no more than 3% of the overall rock.

The zeolites are mainly found in veins, less commonly in cavities and

the amygdales and groundmass of basalt, and only in a few fault zones.

Sinistral strike-slip movement along the Portapique Fault, a few hundred

metres north of the coastal outcrops, formed small transtensional

grabens in which McCoy Brook Formation clastic sediments accumulated.

The predominant lithology in the lower part of the McCoy Brook Formation

is eolian dune sandstone, but lacustrine mudstone and talus slope

debris-flow breccia of matrix-supported basalt clasts (Tanner and Hubert

1991) are also present. b.d.



Total 87.20 87.13 91.53 92.24

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. The

star-like crystal habit is distinctive.

Other North Shore localities are described from east to west. The samples were then analysed using a Siemens Cristaloflex

diffractometer, CoK[alpha] radiation, and a scan from 2[degrees] to

42[degrees] 20 at a speed of 0.250 20/min. b.d. b.d. Journal reviews by John Greenough, Greg McHone and David

McMullin substantially improved this paper.

PE-PIPER, G. b.d. b.d.



Total 93.14 93.68 94.92 94.38

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 72 72 72 72

Si 26.12 26.43 27.36 27.69

Al 9.88 9.69 8.8 8.79



Ca 9.4 8.97 2.95 4.06

Na 0.7 0.63 0.43 0.89

K b.d. 48 48 72 72 72

Si 17.38 17.78 27.17 27.15 27.03

Al 6.65 6.24 8.71 8.79 8.83



Ca 3.08 2.92 2.9 3.44 4.15

Na 0.37 0.33 0.94 1.54 1.1

K b.d. of

Commerce, NTIS Document, PB-21188.

Zeolites of the North Shore of the Minas Basin

Natrolite is generally beige to white, massive or as radiating

fibres, dull, and brittle (Fig. With falling temperature the crystallizing solution

became enriched in Na, and sodic zeolite minerals, such as natrolite,

began to crystallize. 152-159.

Laumontite is milky white and subvitreous to vitreous. Gesner (1836) reported that

a mass of stilbite of over 200 lbs fell from a cliff in 1834. AND HORTON, D. b.d.

Total 84.42 83.55 84.89

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. Veins of zeolite

cutting basalt are also recognised in basalt clasts in the talus-slope

deposits (Fig. An internal standard (scolecite) was used in

addition to the standard regularly used. Aux tempeatures

inferieures de la cote nord, leNa a incorpore dans Ia structure de la

chabasite et des au tres zeolites telles que l’analcime, et la

cristallisation finale etait representee par des quantites reduites

seulement de zeolites riches en Na (groupe de la natrolite).

Epistilbite is not easy to identify in hand specimen and most of

the epistilbite identifications are from XRD and electron microprobe

chemical analyses. 1975. Zeolite minerals

identified in this study at Arlington Quarry (representative locality

from Kings County) include heulandite (sensa stricto) , clinoptiolite,

stilbite, stellerite, scolecite, analcime, epistilbite, thomsonite, and

mesolite. The associated minerals

include quartz, calcite, and barite.

GESNER, A. b.d. b.d. b.d. (hons) thesis, Acadia University,

Wolfville, N.S., 48 p.

The basalt has well developed columnar joints, some of which appear

to have been rotated by local fault movement (Schlische and Olsen 1989).

Neptunian dykes of fine red sandstone and mudstone occupy joints between

cooling columns and sinuous fractures in the basalt (Figs. This effect is not simply

the result of a greater geographic range on the North Shore, as analyses

from the Morden area reported by Pe-Piper (2000), from localities up to

30 km apart, show tight clusters similar to those from Arlington Quarry.

At both Arlington Quarry and the Morden area (Pe-Piper 2000), few

zeolites fall in the field in Figure 5 with either Ca+Mg 70% or Na

70%. 726 754 785 786

Locality Arlington Quarry Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.94 57.31 56.92 55.85

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.41 15.79 15.32 15.61



CaO 8.04 8.13 8.07 8.18

[Na.sub.2]O 0.69 0.76 0.34 0.51

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. b.d. Dept. The Minas Basin, at the eastern end of the

Bay of Fundy, is a half-graben with the master fault on the north side

showing strong left-lateral movement synchronous with basalt extrusion

(Withjack et al. 947 948 949 852

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 58.21 60.36 59.47 56.64

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.76 15.78 15.63 16.49



CaO 7.97 7.96 7.71 8.67

[Na.sub.2]O 0.55 0.52 0.39 1.63

[K.sub.2]O 0.31 0.33 0.3 b.d.

Total 83.8 84.95 83.5 83.43

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 2000. b.d. 0.28

K b.d. On the North Shore of the Minas Basin, Mertz and

Hubert (1990) described only gypsum precipitation. Geological Society of America Centennial Field Guide, Northeastern Section, v. Well crystallized “heulandite”

can easily be identified by its coffin-shaped crystal habit. Chabazite

shows a wide range of compositions from almost zero to 65% Ca+Mg.

Stilbite and epistilbite show a wider range in K content than that

reported by Pe-Piper (2000) from Morden. Slickensides in the basalt cataclasite are developed in

quartz and celadonite.

The fault zone cutting sandstone of the McCoy Brook Formation that

shows hydroplastic slickensides described by Schlische and Olsen (1989)

also has sub-parallel zeolite veins and veins of silicified sediment.

Thin silica veins have been found in other faults cutting sandstone of

the McCoy Brook Formation.

Zeolites occur only locally in the McCoy Brook Formation. 2710-2717.

ACKERMANN, R.V., SCHLISCHE, R.W., OLSEN, P.E. b.d. Fieldtrip guide for the International Zeolite Association, 9th

International Zeolite Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp. 774 877 710 714

Locality Arlington WC AC


Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 38.42 47.06 47.22 47.20

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 29.15 26.25 26.55 26.41

[FeO.sup.t] 1.80 b.d. In contrast, on the

North Shore the chemical data presented in this paper indicate that Na

was readily accommodated in the crystal structure of crystallizing

zeolites, which we interpret as a result of crystallization at lower

temperatures. Because of the difficulty of

discriminating accurately heulandite from clinoptilolite, we use the

term “heulandite” to include both minerals.


KONTAK, D.J. 3.68

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 3). The widest neptunian dykes

are orthogonal to the regional extension direction. b.d. A description of the

mineralogy and geology of a part of Nova Scotia. The mineralogy of Nova Scotia: a report to the

provincial government. 36, pp. 1).

Date received: August 9,2002Date accepted: December 2, 2002

Previous work on the zeolites of the North Shore of the Minas Basin

has been reported by Jackson and Alger (1828), Gesner (1836), How

(1868), Gilpin (1881), Walker and Parsons (1922), Sabina (1965), Aumento

(1966), Donohoe et al. 15-27

Silica minerals including quartz to “heulandite”

Wasson Bluff

Sequence of crystallisation of zeolites and other secondary

minerals is based on two types of evidence. Within the McCoy Brook Formation, slickensides in red

sandstone and mudstone were interpreted by Schlische and Olsen (1989) as

hydroplastic, having formed in incompletely lithifled sediment.

SABINA, A.P. 6b). b.d. b.d. University of Toronto Studies, Series 14, Contributions to

Canadian Mineralogy, pp. b.d.

Si/Al 1.58 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.59

E% -1.4 0.3 1.4 2.8 -1.2

Mineral Tetranatrolite

Sample Z270

Analysis No. 174

Locality Arlington


Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 57.72

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.51



CaO 8.37

[Na.sub.2]O 0.78

[K.sub.2]O b.d.

Total 83.38

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. The basalt of the

North Shore hosts zeolites in pipes, joints, veins, fractures, cavities,

and fault zones, and in the amygdales and groundmass of the basalt. b.d.

Si/Al 2.17 2.23 2.26 2.28

E% 0.5 -1.5 1.0 -0.6

Mineral Wairakite Wairakite

Sample Z51 Z675

Analysis No. The

study areas of the North Shore include localities known as Five Islands,

Two Islands, Wasson Bluff, Partridge Island, Gape Sharp, Horseshoe Cove,

and western Cape d’Or (Fig. 0.49 0.82

Na 4.00 15.02 15.41 14.38 14.24

K 1.18 b.d. 31.

Editorial responsibility: Sandra M. b.d. 4a).

All zeolite minerals previously reported from the North Mountain

Basalt, except gyrolite, levyne, and mordenite, have also been

identified along the North Shore of the Minas Basin. 6a), two types of

“heulandite” can be distinguished. Halifax, N.S., 217 p.

Previous studies suggested that the zeolite formation in the North

Mountain Basalt was the result of burial metamorphism (e.g. 5, pp. Most of the studies of

zeolite minerals on the North Shore were conducted before the

development of analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and

electron microprobe chemical analyses, and even the more recent studies

have not included electron microprobe chemical analyses. 1989.

Petrochemical and stratigraphic aspects of the North Mountain basalt

from the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. b.d.

Si/Al 1.60 1.59 1.60 1.26

E% -1.4 -0.8 -2.9 -1.9

Mineral Thomsonite Analcime

Sample Z51 W102

Analysis No. 5).

The zeolites we identified at this locality are the same as those

reported by Booth (1994) and Donohoe et al. 1980. 415-420.

MERTZ, K.A., JR., HUBERT, J.F. 80 80 80 80

Si 20.67 24.12 24.17 24.24

Al 18.49 15.86 16.02 15.99

Fe 0.81 b.d. 1992. b.d. 1966. In:

Tectonic, depositional, and paleoecological history of Early Mesozoic

rift basins, eastern North America. 2a). b.d. Zeolite rosettes 5-20 mm in diameter appear to have

precipitated in situ in the muddy matrix of the debris-flow deposits

within a few metres of these faults. b.d.

Na 14.75 15.06 14.61 14.71

K b.d. 48 48 48 48

Si 17.8 18.17 18.11 18.31

Al 6.16 5.8 5.86 5.72



Ca 2.78 2.79 2.7 2.64

Na 0.73 0.34 0.58 0.18

K b.d. b.d. Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 59.64 49.15 49.82 49.97 49.59

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 14.07 26.57 26.93 26.52 26.59

CaO 3.19 0.29 b.d. Zeolites

are common in veins and at western Cape d’Or, also in joints.

Study areas on the North Shore of the Minas Basin include Wasson

Bluff, Cape Sharp, Five Islands, Partridge Island, Horseshoe Cove,

Western Cape d’Or, and Two Islands (Fig. In comparison, on the North Shore the

temperature of zeolite formation was probably lower, so that Na was

accommodated in the structure of chabazite and other zeolites (e.g.,

analcime) and finally only small amounts of Na-rich zeolites (natrolite

group) crystallized at the lowermost temperatures. Rosettes

of quartz and either “heulandite” or stellerite appear to have

precipitated in situ in the muddy matrix of talus and debris-flow

deposits within a few metres of these faults.

Analcime to analcime + “heulandite” to natrolite to


Selected chemical analyses of zeolite minerals from the North Shore

of Minas Basin are given in Table 1. 2000. Olsen and P.J.W. Some eolian sandstone has abundant

patches of concretions 5-10 mm in diameter that consist of sandstone

cemented by stellerite. 0.11 0.81

Si/Al 3.08 3.04 2.95 3.09 2.69

E% 0.6 3.2 0.4 -0.3 -0.9

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample Z33 Z36

Analysis No. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.

32, pp. b.d. b.d. 96 96 96 96

Si 32.20 33.11 33.28 33.35

Al 14.82 14.83 14.75 14.63

Ca b.d. Celadonite, silica minerals, “heulandite,”

analcime, and chabazite predominate in amygdales in the basalt flows and

in basalt clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation, suggesting that these

minerals were “early” (Fig. b.d. b.d. III,

New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland.

Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 8, 106 p.

On a Si/Al – (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) plot (Fig. Analcime from Wasson Bluff is commonly

present as well formed trapezohedra growing on other crystals such as

twinned heulandite.

Stellerite was identified only by XRD and chemical analysis, but in

hand specimen resembles stilbite.

Stilbite from Arlington Quarry is generally sheaf-like, vitreous,

and colourless, resembling that of the North Shore. Tectonic

evolution of Fundy basin, Canada: Evidence for extension and shortening

during passive margin formation. b.d. b.d. Minerals associated with the

zeolite minerals include quartz and other forms of silica (e.g.,

chalcedony, amethyst, agate, jaspar, opal), malachite, mica, barite, and


BOOTH, I. Cycles of sand-fiat

sandstone and playa-lacustrine mudstone in the Triassic-Jurassic

Blomidon redbeds, Fundy rift basin, Nova Scotia: implications for

tectonic and climatic controls. 789 792 794 798 802

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.76 55.66 57.62 57.65 55.22

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.82 15.39 16.21 16.2 15.42



CaO 8.35 8.32 7.64 7.29 7.03

[Na.sub.2]O 1.17 1.16 b.d. The crystal chemistry of mordenites.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. b.d. 1215-1232.

Wairakite is generally vitreous with well formed pseudo-octahedral

to pseudo-icositetrahedral colourless crystals that can be confused with

analcime (Fig. Gossip and Coade, Times Office, Halifax, N.S.


At Wasson Bluff, celadonite, silica minerals,

“heulandite”, analcime, and chabazite in amygdales in the

basalt flows and in basalt clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation formed

before deposition of the McCoy Brook Formation sedimentary rocks began.

Veins and concretions of “heulandite”, chabazite, stellerite,

and silica minerals in these sedimentary rocks are later.

Sixteen zeolite minerals have been identified along the North Shore

of the Minas Basin. Minerals associated with the zeolites include

green celadonite, malachite, quartz and other forms of silica, barite,

calcite, and fluoroapophyllite. Zeolite minerals, Nova Scotia. Within individual crystals Si, Al, Ca,

Na, and [H.sub.2]O decrease from core to rim. 6a), less Ca, and

more K and Na; minor Mg was also detected. b.d.

Mg b.d. 4c).

The Wasson Bluff section is the best area on the North Shore to

study the geological events related to the formation of the

zeolite-minerals (Figs. 5a). A study of the zeolites of the North Mountain

Basalt in the core GAV-77-3. b.d.



Total 82.93 82.25 81.00 81.55

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 0.21 0.21 3.28

[Na.sub.2]O 14.18 16.00 15.41 15.41 12.41

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 163 164 8 9

Locality Cape d’Or Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.76 58.01 53.85 54.39

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 19.12 18.84 17.31 17.55

CaO 8.07 8.80 8.02 7.19

[Na.sub.2]O 3.81 2.79 3.85 4.63

[K.sub.2]O 0.70 0.67 0.82 0.95



Total 89.46 89.11 83.85 84.71

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. In: Poole, W.J.

(ed), Geology of parts of the Atlantic Provinces. 3). 0.22

Mg b.d. b.d. 6a) than at Arlington Quarry. 1995.

Syn-sedimentary collapse of portions of the lower Blomidon Formation,

Fundy rift basin, Nova Scotia. Tanner and Hubert (1991) noted

that the talus slope breccia included zeolite-filled fractures cutting

both clasts and matrix. 1987. Most crystals are well formed and easily identified, but

the massive form resembles massive heulandite, making positive

identification by eye difficult. 6).

Thomsonite is generally massive or fibrous, beige to off-white.

The North Shore of the Minas Basin is part of the

Cobequid-Chedabucto fault system that was active during the Triassic and

Jurassic (Stevens 1987; Withjack etal. The mixture of methanol and sample

was then mounted on a glass slide using a micro-pipette and allowed to

dry. b.d. Geological Association

of Canada and Mineralogical Association of Canada, Field Trip 3, pp.



CaO 9.15 9.04 14.34

[Na.sub.2]O 4.34 4.30 b.d.

[K.sub.2]O b.d. The first four

minerals are the most common. 5-26



X-ray diffraction and electron microprobc analyses show Ihe

following assemblages to be present in basalt flows and overlying siliciclastic sedimentary rocks along the Norlh Shore of the Minas

Basin: Five Islands — chabazite and stilbite are dominant, also

“heulandite” and barrerite; Two Islands — analcime is

dominant, gmelinite, chabazite, stilbite, and natrolile; Wasson

Bluff–chabazite, slilbite and “heulandite” are dominant, also

herschelite, barrerite, stellerite, analcime, wairakite, natrolite,

clinoptilolite, and thomsonite; Parlridge Island — chabazite and

stilbite are dominant, also analcime, epistilbite, natrolite, barrerite,

and “heulandite”; Cape Sharp — chabazite, stilbite,

barrerite, stellerite, and “heulandite”; Horseshoe Cove –

“heulandite” and stilbite; Western Cape d’Or — analcime,

stilbite, natrolite, and mesolite are dominant, also stellerite,

?epistilbite, barrerite, scolecite, chabazite, “heulandite”,

wairakite, tetranatrolite and laumontite. 3). Associated

minerals are quartz, chert, other forms of silica, mica, chlorite,

magnetite, and galena. Sedimentology, v. In contrast,

individual crystals from the North Shore show Si and Ca increasing from

core to rim, and Al and Na decreasing.

JACKSON, C.T., ALGER, F. Remarks on the Geology and Mineralogy of Nova

Scotia. b.d. Na-rich zeolites

are represented by natrolite, tetranatrolite, and gmelinite. Mode of occurrence, chemical variations and

genesis of the zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin,

Nova Scotia. Tectonics, v. Other identified zeolites from elsewhere in Kings County

include mordenite, natrolite, tetranatrolite, rare chabazite, analcime,

laumontite gmelinite, and gyrolite (Pe-Piper and Horton 1996; Pe-Piper

2000; and unpublished data). 80 80 80 80 80

Si 24.43 24.55 24.53 24.49 24.52

Al 15.52 15.46 15.52 15.62 15.43

Ca 0.98 b.d. Basaltic cataclasite contains only

rare zeolites, as at Wasson Bluff. 0.21 0.22 0.28

Total 88.47 85.5 85.05 83.66

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d.

Si/Al 1.52 1.52 1.55

E% 6.9 6.9 -6.5

Mineral Scolecite Thomsonite

Sample Z23 Z33

Analysis No. European Journal of Mineralogy, v. Nova Scotian

Institute of Science, Transactions and Proceedings, v. B.Sc. 0.2 1.41 1.72 1.33

Total 82.1 80.73 82.91 82.86 79.29

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. Comparison is made with

assemblages at Arlington Quarry on North Mountain, where the dominant

zeolite minerals are heulandite (sensu stricto) and stilbite. b.d. In individual veins,

amygdales, and vugs, the sequence of minerals from rim to core is

interpreted as a time sequence (Pe-Piper 2000). Careful extraction of minerals helped increase the

recovery of monomineralic samples and a microscope was employed to

ensure purity of the mineral extracts. 0.12

Si/Al 3.13 3.08 3.15 3.04

E% -2.2 -1.5 0.6 -2.0

Mineral Stilbite

Sample Z31

Analysis No. Within the McCoy Brook Formation,

zeolitization is generally restricted to a few discrete zones, including

major faults and near the contact of talus-sl ope deposits with basalt

(again, presumably related to active faulting). Chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids was likely

different between North Mountain and the North Shore, wilh fluids in the

latter area less sodic. b.d. Mode of occurrence, chemical variation and

genesis of mordenite and other associated zeolites from Morden, Nova

Scotia, Canadian Mineralogist, v.38, pp. The temperature ofzeo]ite crystallization appears to have been high at Arlington Quarry, where

“heulandite” and stilbite crystallised with little Na in their

crystal structure. Walker and Parsons

(1922) reported analcime, natrolite, thomsonite, and gmelinite, but we

have not identified those minerals in our samples. 92 93 46 47

Locality Wasson Bluff Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 42.04 42.02 58.38 57.75

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 28.78 28.34 21.09 21.47

CaO 11.20 11.32 b.d. As the temperatures decreased and the

circulating fluids became depleted in Ca, lower temperature, Narich

zeolites (natrolite group) began to crystallize. 1990. b.d. 108 109 111 40

Locality TowIslands WassonBluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 52.55 53.22 51.39 66.27

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 19.42 19.62 19.03 12.38

CaO 4.20 5.28 4.60 5.84

[Na.sub.2]O 10.26 8.49 13.16 0.57

[K.sub.2]O 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.46

BaO b.d. Zeolite minerals in Ihe McCoy Brook Formation sedimentary

rocks are restricted to a few discrete zones, including major faults.

Massive veins within faults consist principally of chabazite. (1992), and Booth (1994). b.d. Basalt exposed on the

North Shore shows the same stratigraphic succession as the main North

Mountain outcrop on the south side of the Bay of Fundy, but tends to be

more tectonized and altered (Greenough et al. 390-405.

At Two Islands, the larger island is entirely basalt and has common

gmelinite and analcime. 1) was selected as a representative

zeolite-bearing locality from the North Mountain Basalt of Kings County.

Sixty-three zeolite samples from the quarry were studied in hand

specimen (Fig. b.d. (hons) thesis, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax,

N.S., 129 p.

Minerals present

Previous Work

New field observations clarify the occurrence of zeolites in the

Wasson Bluff section (Fig. 1881. 80

Si 24.41

Al 15.57

Ca 1.04

Na 13.58

K b.d.

Si/Al 1.57

E% -0.6

b.d. b.d.

Si/Al 1.12 1.52 1.51 1.52

E% -4.8 -0.7 5.2 5.9

Mineral Tetranatrolite “Heulandite”

Sample Z44 Z30

Analysis No. 150-151.


Table 1

Electron microprobe analyses of representative zeolite minerals

Mineral Mesolite Thomsonite

Sample Z270 Z401 Z51

Analysis No. 80 80 80 80

Si 24.21 24.11 24.35 20.68

Al 15.53 15.65 15.37 18.93

Fe b.d. Stilbite generally has a Si/Al ratio between 2.8 and 3.1.

Chabazite of the North Shore has a wide range of compositions, but

within the range reported by Gottardi and Galli (1985). In addition,

wairakite, barrerite, and tetranatrolite, not previously reported, have

been identified. 1989. JR., COLWELL, J.A., GEORGE, E. b.d.

Total 84.88 85.66 85.28 87.25

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. Chabazite is the dominant

zeolite, occurring most commonly in veins. 3), which is cataclastic basalt brecciated along strike-slip fault

zones. Zeolites are also present as irregular veins in the pug of a few

major faults. Arlington Quarry

Heulandite (sensu stricto) to stilbite to clinoptilolite

Recent experimental data on the formation temperatures of natural

zeolites are limited. 1989. 1922. In the North Mountain Basalt, the most prominent

zeolitization is in the columnar-jointed basalt and irregular veins and

vugs, which is a response to the progressive deformation of the basalt

in a strike-slip, pull-apart setting. Peak positions were refined

using the algorithm of Appleman and Evans (1973).

Mineral chemistry: North Shore vs. Experimental studies on

zeolite formation conditions. We thank D.J.W Piper for help in the field and for reviewing

the paper. In the easternmost McCoy Brook Formation basin,

an irregular silicified body (5 m in length, 1 m thick) appears to have

replaced permeable polymictic coarse litharenite. Massive basalt at Partridge Island,

corresponding to the lower lava unit of North Mountain, conformably

overlies the Blomidon Formation. 1995). The difference in chemical

composition of zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin

and from Kings County may be the result of a difference in temperature

of formation and/or different fluid composition.

MILLER, L.J. 50, pp. Zeolites also cement

zones where basalt has been brecciated (Fig. 1991. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 27.18 27.14 26.89 27.12 26.97

Al 8.83 8.93 9.12 8.87 9.01



Ca 4.09 3.99 4.21 4.18 3.92

Na 0.61 0.17 0.67 0.44 0.44

K b.d. Gore, Field trip guidebook

T351, 28th Geological Congress, pp. b.d. 781 783 812 814

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.73 57.3 59.71 59.68

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 18.2 17.69 16.29 16.43



CaO 9.4 8.97 6.01 8.35

[Na.sub.2]O 0.7 0.63 0.48 1.01

[K.sub.2]O b.d. At

Five Islands, the North Mountain Basalt is highly faulted (Greenough et

al. b.d.

Si/Al 1.24 1.26 2.35 2.28

E% -0.3 -4.1 1.7 0.3

Mineral Analcime

Sample Z51 Z270

Analysis No. 139

Locality Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.72

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.35

CaO 1.94

[Na.sub.2]O 13.98

[K.sub.2]O b.d.



Total 90.99

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 58 114 116 119 149

Locality Partridge Is. b.d.

Total 86.78 89.23 89.12 88.45

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 0.87 b.d. The overall

order of crystallization from earliest to latest is: mica to quartz +

amethyst + other forms of silica to chabazite to stilbite to calcite.

ADAMS, G.C. The variation in

evaporite distribution in the Blomidon Formation, from gypsum at the

basin margin to halite in the basin centre, may have influenced the

chemistry of later hydrothermal zeolites.

Copyright 2002 Gale, Cengage Learning. b.d. Let filons massifs persents a

l’interieur des failles sent principalement constitues de c

habasite. 1, pp.


PE-PIPER, G. b.d. b.d. 2e). Natural zeolites.

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 409 p.

Analcime and natrolite are abundant, mesolite and stilbite are

common, and thomsonite, chabazite, laumontite, and

“heulandite” are rare. Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 51.72 52.41 55.29 56.65

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.67 16.05 16.72 16.20

CaO 0.77 0.62 7.93 8.11

[Na.sub.2]O 9.02 8.44 1.06 0.59

[K.sub.2]O 4.75 4.73 b.d. The “heulandite” is present

in the form of rosettes. The oldest basaltic clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation

contain a similar mineral assemblage (including sparse

“heulandite” and chabazire) in amygdales, suggesting that the

oldest zeolitization predated erosion of the clasts at fault scarps in

the basalt. La

temperarure de cristallisation de Ia zeolite semble avoir ete elevee

dans Ia carriere Arlington, ou l’ heulandite et la

stilbite se sont cristallisees en integrant peu de Na dans la structure

de leurs cristaux. 0.12 0.13 0.16

Si/Al 1.51 4.55 4.35 4.25

E% 5.2 2.4 0.8 1.7

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample Z30 Z31

Analysis No. b.d.



Total 88.29 86.71 87.62 87.16

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. The type section of

the North Mountain basalt is overlain by the lacustrine Scots Bay

Formation, whereas the basalt on the North Shore is overlain by

siliciclastic rocks of the Mccoy Brook Formation. A slurry of each of the powdered

samples was created before mounting of the sample on a glass disk.

Methanol was used in the slurry because it evaporates quickly and it

does not react with zeolite minerals. b.d.

BaO 1.56 1.80 b.d. 1828. 24 24 72 72

Si 8.53 8.67 26.60 26.98

Al 3.24 3.13 9.48 9.09

Ca 0.14 0.11 4.09 4.14

Na 2.89 2.71 0.99 0.55

K 1.00 1.00 b.d. The

most common zeolite minerals in this area are chabazite,

“heulandite”, stilbite, and analcime. 2, 3). 442-451.

Overall evidence presented in this study suggests that the

temperature of zeolite crystallization was higher in Arlington Quarry

compared to the North Shore. 761 764 766 767

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 58.31 60.39 59.7 61.9

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.12 16.36 16.38 16.41



CaO 8.51 8.67 8.32 8.34

[Na.sub.2]O 1.23 0.59 0.98 0.31

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d.

Total 86.19 85.93 82.51 85.25 84.57

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. However, many analysed zeolites from the North

Shore ha ve a higher sodium content compared with published values from

elsewhere (Gottardi and Galli 1985).

Cape d’Or

Based on textural relationships between minerals in individual hand

specimens, the following sequences of crystallization are recognised,

from early to late:

Stilbite is abundant and chabazite is common in the area, with

minor “heulandite” and barrerite. The dominant vesicle fillings in basalt are celadonite

and silica minerals, with minor “heulandite”, chabazite, and

analcime. Zeolites of the Bay of Fundy. 0.74 0.99 b.d.

Total 85.32 85.98 82.23 82.74 82.65

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. This differentce is also

supported by the presence of mordenite in some areas of Kings County

(Pe-Piper 2000; Kontak 2000).

Others have made passing observations on the distribution of

zeolites in the Wasson Bluff section. Avec la baisse de la temperature, la solution de

cristallisation s’est enrichie en Na, et les zeolites sodiques,

comme Ia natrolite, ont commence a se cristalliser. b.d. b.d. The host rock is mostly locally vesicular basalt (some

joints filled with red sandstone) overlain by massive basalt. b.d. 4b). b.d. Identifying zeolites in the field was

difficult because commonly more than one zeolite mineral was present in

any one hand specimen. Zeolite

veins cut the talus-slope deposits and zeolites also fill vugs in the

matrix. 72 80 80 80 80

Si 28.05 24.47 24.46 24.61 24.41

Al 7.80 15.60 15.59 15.40 15.49

Ca 1.61 0.16 b.d. A few

zeolite veins cross-cut both the basalt and neptunian dykes, but are

much thinner in the dyke sediments (Fig. Atlantic Geoscience Society, Annual

Colloquium, Program with Abstracts, p. The chemical compositions of individual zeolite minerals can

be illustrated on a Na – K – (Ca+Mg) plot (Fig. 4a),

ranging from colourless to green to white.

Chemical analyses of zeolite minerals from Arlington Quarry are

given in Table 2. Stop 11.3, Wasson Bluff.

Structural Geology and Stratigraphy. Une comparaison a ete effectuee avec des assemblages de Ia

carriere Arlington au North Mountain, ou let zeolites predominantes sont

l’heulandite (au sens strict) et la stilbite. Aumento

1966; Adams 1980). 0.29

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Vol. b.d. 0.62 b.d. Massive

light-pink “heulandite” identified by XRD resembled chabazite

in hand specimen.


The zeolite minerals found on the North Shore of the Minas Basin

differ from those in Kings County and elsewhere on the south coast of

the Bay of Fundy in the presence of wairakite and barrerite, and in the

abundance of chabazite, which is rare on the south coast. 1). b.d.

Ca 5.23 5.22 8.15

Na 4.49 4.49 b.d.

K b.d. 7) and by XRD and electron microprobe. 3.08

[Na.sub.2]O 3.66 14.49 15.35 11.76

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Within individual crystals at Arlington Quarry, Si, Na, and K

decrease from core to rim, whereas Al and Ca increase. b.d. 1965. b.d.

SrO b.d. b.d. According to Ackermann et al. 96 96 24 24

Si 34.20 34.40 8.55 8.55

Al 13.35 13.17 3.24 3.25

Ca 5.12 5.59 1.37 1.21

Na 4.38 3.21 1.19 1.41

K 0.53 0.51 0.17 0.19

Si/Al 2.56 2.61 2.64 2.63

E% -1.0 -11.6 -20.6 -19.2

Mineral Chabazite Stilbite

Sample W166 Z310

Analysis No. 6a). La composition chimique des fluides hydrotbermaux du North

Mountain etait vraisemblablement differente de celle des fluides de Ia

cote nord, les fluides de cette derniere region etant moms sodiques. b.d. 1989. It can also be massive, white, and dull.

Mesolite of Arlington Quarry is white and dull, resembling that of

the North Shore in hand specimen. (1992), except that we did

not identify scolecite and epistilbite. b.d. The dominance of “heulandite” in Kings

County and of chabazite on the North Shore suggests that formation

temperatures were higher in Kings County. The trap minerals of Nova Scotia. (1995) inferred the unit

was formed by subsidence and collapse of a metre thick evaporite-rich

bed by groundwater. Basaltic breccia with a red mudstone

matrix, probably a faulted equivalent of the talus slope breccia seen at

Wasson Bluff, contains zeolites, principally in veins, although some

occur in vugs in the matrix and in amygdales in the basalt clasts.

Mesolite is generally milky white and fibrous with fibres larger

than those of natrolite. b.d.

MgO b.d. b.d. Nevertheless,

significant silicic alteration affects the upper part of the McCoy Brook

Formation containing polymictic pebbly litharenite. 13-73.

The most abundant zeolite on the larger island is analcime, whereas

gmelinite and chabazite are common and stilbite and natrolite are rare

(I. b.d.

MgO 1.09 b.d. Partridge Is.

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 58.55 61.86 60.03 58.53

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.16 16.57 16.55 14.04

CaO 7.83 5.72 5.16 4.22

[Na.sub.2]O 0.59 1.17 2.26 4.33

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 777 778 843 844 724

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.85 58.88 57.23 57.28 57.34

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 18.45 17.52 15.57 15.79 15.89



CaO 9.4 9.01 7.67 6.8 8.22

[Na.sub.2]O 0.62 0.57 1.02 1.68 1.2

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 857-873.

Thomsonite and/or epistilbite to mesolite


Temperatures of zeolite formation

GILPIN, E. b.d. Potential

zeolite minerals were extracted from each sample based on colour and

crystal habit. 14, pp. Both the field and

analytical data in this study have been substantially updated since a

preliminary report by Miller (1997).

In both Figs. The

overall order of crystallization is: quartz to stilbite + quartz to

stilbite to “heulandite” to calcite. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 26.00 26.03 27.10 27.21 27.13

Al 9.95 9.92 9.04 8.75 8.89

Ca 4.08 4.03 3.92 4.13 4.07

Na 0.45 0.54 0.65 0.65 0.66

K 1.56 1.54 b.d. Considerable

discrepancy exists in the zeolite mineral assemblages in each area as

reported by different authors.


STEVENS, G.R. b.d. 5, p. 1995). Chemical variation

between individual zeolite minerals is likely also be a result of

different fluid composition of the hydrothermal waters responsible for

zeolite formation.


Barrerite is generally vitreous, massive, and colourless to pink

(Fig. 141 131 132 91

Locality Cape d’Or Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.05 47.14 47.63 42.31

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 25.46 25.15 25.22 28.40

CaO 8.78 9.45 9.66 11.00

[Na.sub.2]O 6.00 4.97 5.11 5.45

[K.sub.2]O b.d. The beam operated with 15kv and 15nA and a beam

diameter of 10 [micro]m. 1868. b.d. Zeolites

of the North Mountain Basalt, Bay of Fundy – Minas Basin region, Nova

Scotia. They also described irregularities in the top of one basalt flow

developed before the subsequent flow was deposited that they ascribed to

faulting during extrusion of the basalt succession.


Stellerite to “heulandite”

Chemical differences between zeolites of the North Shore and Kings

County may also result from different chemistry of crystallizing

solutions. 40, pp. The overall order of crystallization from

earliest to latest is: chabazite to quartz + stilbite to calcite.

The purpose of this paper is: 1) to accurately identify zeolite

minerals of the North Shore of the Minas Basin using up-to-date

analytical techniques, thus establishing both their stratigraphic and

regional distribution; 2) to determine the order of crystallization of

zeolite minerals in each area and hence the events of zeolite formation;

3) to examine the chemical mineralogy of zeolite minerals of

representative samples and in particular zeolite species from these

areas with no published chemical analyses; 4) to establish the

differences in chemistry of some identified zeolite species between the

North Shore and the Arlington Quarry (a representative area of the type

North Mountain basalt in Kings County) (Fig. Wasson Bluff and Cape d’Or display

the largest variety of zeolite minerals, whereas the other localities

have only two to five zeolite minerals. Les zeolites dans let roches sedimentaires de

la Formation de McCoy Brook se limitent a quelques zones distinctes,

dont des fiilles importantes. b.d.

Mg 0.87 b.d. The first zeolite minerals to

crystallize in Kings County samples are rich in Ca (i.e.

“heulandite”) and we infer that Na was not accommodated in the

crystal structure of the crystallizing zeolites because fluid

temperature was too high. 2b) are similar, principally with celadonite and silica minerals

in amygdales. b.d.

[Na.sub.2]O 13.27 13.61 13.41 13.42

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Tetranatrolite, stellerite, barrerite,

scolecite, and wairakite have also been identified. 105 50 65 57

Locality CapeSharp Partridge Is. 4d).

Thomsonite from Arlington Quarry is generally white, dull, and

massive with Si/Al average of 1.10 (Fig. 125 126 128 130

Locality Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.23 57.87 58.30 57.83

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.40 15.90 16.82 16.84

CaO 6.29 6.55 7.42 6.38

[Na.sub.2]O 1.55 2.01 0.83 0.93

[K.sub.2]O 0.68 0.62 0.42 0.75



Total 82.15 82.95 83.79 82.73

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. They are “heulandite” (heulandite sensu

stricto and clinoptilolite), chabazite, analcime, stilbite, barrerite,

epistilbite, gmelinite, laumontite, natrolite, mesolite, scolecite,

stellerite, tetranatrolite, thomsonite, and wairakite. The following physical properties were found to

be most useful for zeolite mineral identification in the field. Some authors have

compared the zeolite assemblages to those resulting from burial

metamorphism in Iceland (Adams 1980), but more recent work on North

Mountain shows them to result from hydrothermal circulation (De Wet and

Hubert 1989; Pe-Piper 2000). 96 96 96 96

Si 33.95 34.57 35.53 34.03

Al 12.81 13.02 13.29 13.48

Ca 5.74 4.94 5.32 5.48

Na 5.48 4.12 2.89 3.84

K 0.81 0.66 0.50 0.65

Si/Al 2.65 2.66 2.60 2.52

E% -27.9 -11.2 -5.3 -12.7

Mineral Wairakite Chabazite

Sample Z675 Z667

Analysis No. Most basalt in the area is massive, but

considerable amounts are amygdaloidal. The Si/Al ratios of epistilbite from both areas are

similar, but epistilbite from the North Shore has lower Al and Ca and

higher Na. b.d.



Total 83.05 91.57 92.94 92.47 92.76

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. Olsen and P.J.W.

Gore, Field trip guidebook T351, 28th Geological Congress, pp. 0.2

Total 81.08 81.99 80.65 80.35

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 283-296.

Although “heulandite” occurrences were not suggested in

earlier studies, this zeolite is abundant in the samples examined.

Stilbite is common and associated minerals are quartz and calcite. 0.11

Si/Al 2.89 3.13 3.19 3.2

E% -2.1 -2.2 -2.1 2.7

Mineral Epistilbite Stilbite

Sample Z33 Z25 Z230

Analysis No. b.d.

Si/Al 3.60 1.57 1.57 1.60 1.58

E% -7.1 1.7 1.1 0.3 -2.5

Mineral Natrolite Tetranatrolite

Sample Z270 Z310 Z270

Analysis No. “Heulandite”, mesolite, stilbite,

thomsonite, natrolite, tetranatrolite, and epistilbite have been

analysed from both the North Shore and Arlington Quarry and can

therefore be compared.

A Ia Wasson Bluff, les coulees basaltiques du basalte du North

Mountain et les sediments silicoclastiques sus-jacents de la Formation

de McCoy Brook sont bus demembres par le mouvement synchrone exerce sur

la faille laterale gauche voisine de Porrapique. Elsewhere

on North Mountain, mordenite, natrolite, and laumontite have been

confirmed. b.d. 1.84 0.31

Si/Al 2.64 2.73 3.09 3.08

E% -0.2 2 7.8 -5.7

Mineral Epistilbite

Sample Z21

Analysis No

Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. D. arsenal.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years.

A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. According to Sen. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine.

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. In the modern U.S. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. All rights reserved.

“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.

By Jarrett Murphy

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.

Copyright 2003 CBS. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. wants to stop proliferation.

But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. Nelson.

Last year, the U.S. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test

The Impending Dangers of Nuclear War: America’s W88 Thermonuclear Warhead is 30 Times a Hiroshima Bomb | Global Research

They have had 69 years to get rid of their nuclear weapons while all that the citizens of the world hear from them are windy speeches around purported good intentions which never come to fruition. She concluded ‘It is time to change the status quo. The huge burgeoning of awareness in the citizens of the world is bearing fruit.

The powerful summary statement of the conference Chair pointed out that the broad participation of states and civil society reflected the burgeoning awareness that this issue is of the utmost importance to all the peoples of the world. How can we ever be sure that some deranged psychopath will not gain power in one of the nuclear states and deceive him/herself into believing that it is in their best interests to make a first strike? How can we ever be sure that some terrorist organisations will not hack into the electronic control systems and carry out the launching themselves? And we now know that even a small nuclear exchange could be a lethal threat to everyone on the planet. 8.    http://www.icanw.org/campaign-news/ican-closing-statement-to-the-second-conference-on-the-humanitarian-impact-of-nuclear-weapons/

File:W-88 warhead detail.png

The US government has 5 nuclear submarines on patrol at all times carrying 1000 times the destructive power of the Hiroshima bomb3. This is enough to wipe out the entire population of the planet many times over together with all other life forms. Frozen in a realm of outdated thinking which was always inhuman; their leaders frightened and paranoid and prepared to put the survival of humanity in jeopardy simply in order to feel important and powerful as they strut, uncomprehending, on the world stage.

5.    http://wagingpeace.org/articles/db_article.php?article_id=417

1.     http://www.scribd.com/doc/168600341/Bulletin-of-the-Atomic-Scientists-2013

4.      http://www.good.is/post/what-the-volcano-can-teach-us-about-nuclear-war/

Is this sane? Has the human race lost its senses? A single United States thermonuclear warhead, designated W88, has an estimated ‘yield’ of 475 kilotons2.  The ‘yield’ is the destructive power expressed in tons of TNT equivalent.

The US, the UK, Russia, China and France are rebuilding or upgrading their arsenals of nuclear weapons. And rather than focus on the numbers and ‘yields’ of the weapons it was wisely decided to concentrate on the effects on humanity of the use of nuclear weapons. Getting rid of them will take courageous leadership by states but such leadership will have the support of civil society. Humanity owes a great debt to Norway for this initiative.

7.    http://www.sre.gob.mx/en/images/stories/cih/ci.pdf

The International Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)8 is a coalition of over 350 organisations in 90 countries. They are the very antithesis of humanity5…’


The Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in Nayarit, Mexico, on 13 and 14 February 2014. But these 9 are outnumbered by 20 to one.

2.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W88

A single W88 could completely destroy London, Moscow or New York. The existence of nuclear weapons means they could be used by accident, by misunderstanding or by malicious intent. The other weapons of mass destruction have already been banned.

Their brief and nightmarish ascendancy is over. The world has moved on.

It is ironic that the worst offenders are the five permanent members of the ‘Security’ Council of the United Nations. Each bomb on a major city would kill millions of people; women, children, babies, old people, everyone. The nuclear states have become a sorry sight. As awareness of the humanitarian impact grows hearts and minds are being changed worldwide.

The situation is being rendered even more dangerous by the US and Russia who keep 1,800 weapons on high alert atop long-range ballistic missiles that are ready to launch 5 to 15 minutes after receiving an order!

And finally there is hope. Our belief is that this process should comprise a specific timeframe, the definition of the most appropriate fora, and a clear and substantive framework, making the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons the essence of disarmament efforts. We believe this is the path to achieve a world without nuclear weapons’. India and Pakistan sent observers.

3.     http://www.psr.org/chapters/washington/energy-and-peace/trident.html

The only remedy is an enforced world ban on the existence of nuclear weapons. The security of the non-nuclear states is threatened by the irresponsible and self-focused behaviour of the 9 others. The other four nuclear states(Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea) too are ‘improving’ their arsenals. The movement for an international ban is unstoppable.

Mexico offered to host a follow-up meeting to this conference and such is the vital importance of this approach that other states declared their intention to organise additional events on this subject.

6.    http://thebulletin.org/mexico-preview-humanitarian-approach-disarmament

She went on to explain that the use against cities of less than one percent of existing weapons would put billions of lives in jeopardy and have a long lasting detrimental  effect on both the planet’s climate and agriculture. The non-nuclear majority which do not feel the need for a lethal ‘security’ crutch have decided to take the initiative. It is the turn of the last and most destructive of them all.. And the fallout would have global consequences that would kill millions of people, disrupt climate patterns, and threaten global agricultural collapse4.

The risks of ‘accidental, mistaken, unauthorised or intentional use is growing significantly due to more countries holding weapons on higher levels of combat readiness’. The suffering would be indescribable and for many would go on for months and years before death. By focusing attention on the humanitarian consequences of their use they are well on their way to doing so.

 Furthermore decent people round the globe know that the existence of nuclear weapons is a brooding evil which undermines the moral integrity of humankind. It is not easy to face up to the implications of these arsenals especially if you bear the primary responsibility. Ray Acheson, in her closing statement on behalf of ICAN to the Second Conference included the words ‘The claim by some states that they continue to need these weapons to deter their adversaries has been exposed by the evidence presented at this conference and in Oslo as a reckless and unsanctionable gamble with our future’.

After hearing presentations from a wide range of experts on the various effects of nuclear weapon detonations the conference concluded that “it is unlikely that any state or international body could address the immediate humanitarian emergency caused by a nuclear weapon detonation in an adequate manner and provide sufficient assistance to those affected.” Conference members also agreed that the effects of a nuclear weapon detonation will not be constrained by national borders but will produce significant negative regional and global effects6.

This ground-breaking and historic conference was attended by delegates from 127 countries and 70 nongovernmental organizations. It is time to take action 7.’

 So with these and other major forces at work there is an unstoppable movement towards banning these Armageddon machines. It is time we ban nuclear weapons.

The first International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in 2013. The next logical development, as the nuclear states continue to deny their obligations to shed their arsenals, is for the non-nuclear states to proceed independently to enact a treaty outlawing these weapons internationally. What sort of people would do such a thing? What kind of human would threaten such an atrocity?  

The W88 is over 30 times more destructive than the bomb which wiped out Hiroshima. It included delegations representing 146 States, the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement and civil society organizations.

The Third Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Austria later this year.

Citizens of the world have simultaneously become aware that the nuclear states do not intend to get rid of their nuclear weapons and that their existence imposes a permanent and intolerable threat to us all. These weapons must be outlawed; ‘in the past, weapons have been eliminated after they have been outlawed. This is being done at a time when many citizens are suffering from inadequate defences against flooding and when the social services are being radically cut back. 

The nine nuclear states have over 10,000 nuclear weapons in their stockpiles1. In a limited nuclear war between India and Pakistan 20 million people would die from the nuclear blasts, fires, and radioactive fallout. She insisted that we must act to get rid of them or they will be used by accident, misunderstanding or malicious intent. He called for a ‘legally binding instrument’ and declared that the, ‘time has come to initiate a diplomatic process conducive to this goal. As the great moral leader Desmond Tutu wrote “Nuclear weapons are an obscenity. Due to ‘…proliferation, the vulnerability of nuclear command and control networks to cyber-attacks and to human error and potential access to nuclear weapons by non-state actors, in particularly terrorist groups’ the risks are ‘growing globally’.

There are 9 nuclear states and there are 183 non-nuclear states. The nuclear states were invited but declined to attend. No emergency services could begin to cope There would be no relief. Is it possible to imagine the degree of paranoia represented by such a standing threat? The UK government has started to spend one hundred billion pounds on rebuilding its Trident fleet of nuclear submarines, each one with the capacity to incinerate over 40 million people. As we discuss the statistics and strategies of ‘nuclear arsenals’ and ‘nuclear deterrence’ it can be hard to keep in mind the reality underlying the abstract discussions